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Lung Infections Demystified: Types, Symptoms, Treatment

Lung Infection: Types, Symptoms & Treatment

What Is a Lung Infection?

When a virus or bacteria that causes illness damages and inflames the lungs, it is known as a lung infection. This occurs as immune cells surge to the lungs’ airways or lung tissue to battle the infection.

Viral, bacterial, fungal, parasitic, or fungal infections of the lungs are possible. Sometimes, lung infections are brought on by multiple types of microbes. For example, bacterial pneumonia might result from viral bronchitis.

Lung infections can range from minor to serious. Lung infections can affect anyone at any age, but some forms are more prevalent in particular age groups. Lung infections may develop in the tissues that surround the lungs or in various areas of the airways (such as the bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli).

Common Lung Infection Symptoms

Any kind of lung infection, no matter what the origin, usually results in a specific set of symptoms. The following are a few of the most typical signs of a lung infection:

Cough: Can be light or severe; can be dry (nonproductive—does not produce mucus) or “wet” (productive).

Mucus production: Mucus can be colorless or have an unpleasant odor, and it can also be transparent, yellow, green, brown, or rust-colored.

Wheezing: Wheezing both during exhalation and occasionally during inhalation. When breathing in, a distinct sound called stridor, which is louder than wheezing, could occur. Infections of the airways above the lungs, such as those of the windpipe, can cause stridor (trachea).

Fever: A temperature that is high, very high, or low grade (less than 100 degrees F).

Rigors (shaking chills) or chills: Rigors (shaking chills) might appear as a fever rises, while sweats (which can be drenching) can occasionally appear as the fever falls.  

Upper respiratory symptoms: Headaches, laryngitis, hoarseness, nasal congestion, and sore throat are frequent, especially with viral infections.

Lung infection symptoms

Other possible symptoms of a lung infection include:

  • Muscle aches (myalgia)
  • Joint aches (arthralgia)
  • Loss of appetite
  • Fatigue
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Diarrhea

Types of Lung Infections 

Depending on how they impact the lungs and airways, distinct types of lung infections can be identified.

There can be overlap between some organisms that are more likely to cause one sort of lung infection than another. For instance, some viruses can lead to pneumonia and bronchitis.


An infection of the major airways (bronchi) that connect the trachea to the smaller airways is known as bronchitis.

A viral infection is the most frequent cause of bronchitis. Bacterial infections are to contribute 1% to 10% of cases.


The smaller airways (bronchioles) between the larger bronchi and the tiny alveoli, where oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange takes place, become infected and are known as bronchiolitis.

Children under the age of two frequently develop bronchiolitis, which is also the main reason for newborn hospitalizations in the first year of life. Despite this, most kids who contract it don’t need to be hospitalized.

Children with bronchiolitis may experience recurring wheezing or asthma throughout childhood and even into adulthood after they have recovered.

Common Cold

Children lose 60% to 80% of school, and adults lose 30% to 50% of their workdays due to the common cold.

Children experience six to eight colds on average every year throughout the first six years of life. The average healthy adult has three to four colds a year.


A group of typical viruses that can cause lung infections are called non-polio enteroviruses. They can cause severe infections in other sections of the body, such as encephalitis, myocarditis, and meningitis, which all cause inflammation of the protective layer around the brain. They also cause hand, foot, and mouth disease (enterovirus A71) (brain infection or inflammation).

Enterovirus-induced lung infections sometimes begin with cold-like symptoms such as a fever, runny nose, body aches, and occasionally a rash.


Although it can sometimes damage the bronchi, croup mostly affects the structures above the lungs (the larynx and trachea).

Croup is typically brought on by viruses, such as Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) and common cold viruses, but it can also be brought on by a bacterial infection.

A low-grade fever and runny nose are frequent croup symptoms before the distinctive barking cough that worsens at night.


The flu, often known as seasonal influenza, is one of the most typical lung infections. When a person coughs, sneezes, or simply chats, droplets that are released from their bodies are able to spread the influenza A and influenza B viruses. The flu is particularly contagious because of this.

Symptoms of the flu include:

  • Fever and chills
  • Sore throat
  • Nasal congestion or a runny nose
  • Body aches
  • Headaches
  • Fatigue
  • A mild cough

Whooping Cough (Pertussis)

Despite the misconception that whooping cough (pertussis) is a lung infection that can now be avoided with a vaccine, people still contract it.

Although whooping cough can cause mild to severe disease, it primarily affects babies and young children; about 50% of infants with whooping cough under the age of 12 months require hospitalization.

Pneumonia develops in about one-fourth of infants and young children who acquire whooping cough. Encephalitis is a less frequent (0.3%) consequence of whooping cough. 


Tuberculosis (TB) is a lung infection that is more common in developing regions of the world. It is caused by a bacteria called Mycobacteria tuberculosis.


The smallest of airways (alveoli), where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide occurs, are affected by pneumonia, a lung infection.

Pneumonia can range from a minor condition that can be treated at home to a serious infection that needs intensive care.

The symptoms of pneumonia include:

  • A feeling of being very unwell (which can come on fast)
  • A cough (though the cough with pneumonia can be similar to one from bronchitis)
  • Phlegm production that is rust-colored or contains blood
  • High fever and chills
  • Shortness of breath
  • Chest pain
  • Fast respiratory rate
  • Fast pulse

Some of the most common risk factors for lung infections include:

  • Smoking or exposure to secondhand smoke
  • Exposure to air pollution or dust at work
  • A history of asthma or allergies
  • Crowded living conditions
  • Winter months in the northern hemisphere
  • Dry mucous membranes
  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
  • Anatomical differences in the face, head, neck, or airways (e.g., nasal polyps or a deviated septum)
  • Lower socioeconomic status
  • Malnutrition
  • Not being vaccinated (e.g., pneumococcal vaccines in children or the pneumonia shot in eligible adults)

Lung Infection Treatment

The course of treatment for a lung infection relies on the underlying cause, the severity of the patient’s illness, and any other medical conditions.

Antibiotics can be used to treat viral lung infections, but bacterial lung infections must “run their course.” But if they exhibit severe symptoms, persons with lung infections from any source can require medical attention.

For instance, those who have narrowing of the airways as a result of a lung infection (reactive airway disease) may require corticosteroids to treat inflammation as well as inhalers that open the airways.

People who experience low oxygen levels (hypoxia) as a result of a lung infection may require oxygen therapy, and in extreme circumstances, breathing assistance such as assisted breathing or mechanical ventilation may be required.

Here are a few instances of various viral lung infections that could be treated:

If Tamiflu (oseltamivir), a medication for influenza A, is started as soon as possible, it may lessen the severity and duration of the infection.

A monoclonal antibody therapy may be used to treat children with bronchiolitis caused by RSV who are at very high risk.

Different COVID-19 treatments are being tried but we’re still learning about which ones help and which ones do not. If your provider thinks you are at risk for complications, they might want you to take antiviral medications.

The mainstay of treatment for bacterial lung infections is antibiotics. Which bacterium is responsible for the infection will determine which antibiotic is taken.

In some circumstances, a healthcare professional may decide to begin antibiotics while they wait for test results. They may switch the antibiotic once they have identified the bacterium that is causing the infection.

Depending on how ill a person is, they may be able to consume the medication orally (oral antibiotics) or may require an IV to administer it to them.

Furthermore, time is crucial. Antibiotics, for instance, must be started as soon as possible in the case of pneumonia.

Lung Infections Caused by Fungi and Parasites

Fungal lung infections are treated with anti-fungal drugs including Ancobon (flucytosine), Nizoral (ketoconazole), and Diflucan (fluconazole).

Anti-parasitic drugs are used to treat parasitic lung infections. Depending on the parasite that is infecting you, you’ll need to take a particular treatment. 

Complications of Lung Infection

By itself, a lung infection can be a dangerous condition, but it can also trigger other health issues, some of which can also be life-threatening. Acute lung infection problems might occur right once after becoming ill or they can develop over time (chronic).


Breathing issues are among the worst effects of lung infections. Patients with asthma, for instance, may experience an asthma attack in response to viral lung infections.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) sufferers who have lung infections may experience exacerbations, which may aggravate their illness.


When a person recovers from a lung infection, some side symptoms linger. For instance, infants and children who have bronchiolitis are more likely to develop wheezing and asthma later in childhood.

The possibility that viral lung infections could increase a person’s risk of developing COPD is also a cause for concern.

When to Seek Medical Care for a Lung Infection

If you have a lung infection, certain signs and symptoms mean you need medical care by lungs specialist doctor

  • High fever (over 100.5 to 101 degrees F)
  • Symptoms that do not start getting better after two weeks (though a cough can sometimes last longer)
  • Coughing up blood or rust-colored sputum
  • Shortness of breath (especially at rest)
  • Chest pain (other than a mild ache from coughing)
  • Rapid respiratory rate
  • Fast pulse (a heart rate greater than 100 beats per minute) or palpitations
  • Lightheadedness
  • Confusion or falls (in older adults)
  • Poor feeding or lethargy (infants)
  • Signs of dehydration such as thirst, and few wet diapers, and failure to cry tears in infants
  • Nausea and vomiting


Note: Do not consider JC SURI Blogs as medical advice. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified healthcare providers because of something you have read on JC Suri. You should always speak with your doctor before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your care plan or treatment. If you think you may have a medical emergency, call your doctor immediately.




Influenza/Flu: Symptoms, Causes and Complications

Influenza in India can be Dangerous

Dr. JC Suri talks about, Complete awareness of Influenza/Flu, Its Symptoms as well as Cure

A viral infection known as influenza/flu affects your respiratory system, including your nose, throat, and lungs.

Although influenza is frequently referred to as the flu, it differs from stomach “flu” viruses that cause vomiting and diarrhea.

The influenza virus, which causes the flu, is a common respiratory ailment that can occasionally spread to the lungs as well as the nose and throat.

Mild to severe illness and occasionally even death might result from it. Getting vaccinated annually is the greatest way to prevent the flu.


Causes of Influenza/flu

Droplets of influenza viruses are released into the air when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or speaks. You can either directly inhale the droplets or take up the bacteria from a surface, such as a phone or a computer keyboard, and then transmit it to your eyes, nose, or mouth.

People who have the virus are most likely contagious from a day or so before symptoms emerge to a week or so after they do. Children and those with compromised immune systems may spread germs for a little while longer.

New strains of influenza viruses frequently emerge as a result of ongoing evolution. Your body has already produced antibodies to combat that particular strain of the virus if you’ve previously experienced influenza.

If future influenza viruses are similar to those you’ve encountered before, either by having the disease or by getting vaccinated, those antibodies may prevent infection or lessen its severity. But antibody levels may decline over time.

Also, antibodies against influenza viruses you’ve encountered in the past may not protect you from new influenza strains that can be very different viruses from what you had before.

Influenza/Flu Symptoms

Influenza (flu) can cause mild to severe illness, and at times can lead to death. Flu is different from a cold. Flu usually comes on suddenly. People who have flu often feel some or all of these symptoms:

  • Fever or feeling feverish
  • Cough
  • Tiredness
  • Sore throat
  • Runny or stuffy nose
  • Muscle or body aches
  • Headaches
  • Fatigue

Some people may have vomiting and diarrhea, though this is more common in children than adults. For most people, the flu resolves on its own. But sometimes, influenza and its complications can be deadly.

People at higher risk of developing flu complications include:

  • Young children under age 5, and especially those under 6 months.
  • Adults older than age 65
  • Residents of nursing homes and other long-term care facilities.
  • Pregnant women and women up to two weeks after giving birth.
  • People with weakened immune systems.
  • Native Americans
  • People who have chronic illnesses, such as asthma, heart disease, kidney disease, liver disease, and diabetes.
  • People who are very obese, with a body mass index (BMI) of 40 or higher.

When to see a doctor

Most people who get the flu can treat themselves at home and often don’t need to see a Lungs doctor.
If you have flu symptoms and are at risk of complications, see your doctor right away. Taking antiviral drugs may reduce the length of your illness and help prevent more serious problems.

If you have emergency signs and symptoms of the flu, get medical care right away. For adults, emergency signs and symptoms can include:

  • Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath
  • Chest pain
  • Ongoing dizziness
  • Seizures
  • Worsening of existing medical conditions
  • Severe weakness or muscle pain

5 Risk factors of Influenza

  1. Age: Seasonal influenza tends to target children 6 months to 5 years old, and adults 65 years old or older.
  2. Living or working conditions: People who live or work in facilities with many other residents, such as nursing homes or military barracks, are more likely to develop the flu. People who are staying in the hospital also are at higher risk.
  3. Weakened immune system: Cancer treatments, anti-rejection drugs, long-term use of steroids, organ transplants, blood cancer, or HIV/AIDS can weaken the immune system. This can make it easier to catch the flu and may also increase the risk of developing complications.
  4. Chronic illnesses: Chronic conditions, including lung diseases such as asthma, diabetes, heart disease, nervous system diseases, metabolic disorders, airway abnormality, and kidney, liver, or blood disease, may increase the risk of influenza complications.
  5. Obesity: People with a body mass index (BMI) of 40 or more have an increased risk of flu complications.


What are the complication that can occur, if you are suffering with influenza flu?

If you’re young and healthy, the flu usually isn’t serious. Although you may feel miserable while you have it, the flu usually goes away in a week or two with no lasting effects. But children and adults at high risk may develop complications that may include:

  • Pneumonia
  • Bronchitis
  • Asthma flare-ups
  • Heart problems
  • Ear infections
  • Acute respiratory distress syndrome


The National Center for Disease Control (NCDC) recommends annual flu vaccination for everyone age 6 months or older. The flu vaccine can reduce your risk of the flu and its severity and lower the risk of having serious illness from the flu and needing to stay in the hospital.

Note: Do not consider JC SURI Blogs as medical advice. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified healthcare providers because of something you have read on JC Suri. You should always speak with your doctor before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your care plan or treatment. If you think you may have a medical emergency, call your doctor immediately.

How to improve your respiratory health during winter

How to improve your respiratory health during winter

Respiratory health during winter: Winter has arrived in many parts of the country. With misty mornings and cool evenings, the chilly weather marks the start of some festivals.

However, for some people, the weather brings with it various fitness problems, including serious respiratory ailments.

In addition to the chilly environment, which triggers fitness issues, disease transmission can also increase in cold weather due to the dreadful airflow in crowded places.

People with pre-existing breathing conditions, including bronchial allergies and chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD), are more likely to see an increase in their conditions because even low temperatures can make it difficult to breathe comfortably.

How to improve your respiratory health during winter
How to improve your respiratory health during winter

Which breathing sicknesses are greater universal all through winters?

Though breathing sickness can manifest at any time all through the yr, a number of them are greater universal all through winter.

Common bloodless: It is the most contagious disease seen throughout the winter and can be caused by over a hundred different types of viruses.

Influenza: Commonly known as the flu, influenza is a viral illness that looks like an unusual spot that is bloodless but more intense. A person with the flu may also groan along with frame pain, congestion, fatigue, and chest pain.

Bronchitis: Bronchitis manifests as inflammation and infection within the airways and lungs. This is often preceded by the aid of using an unusual blood thinner or flu. An uncommon, not uncommon, symptom of bronchitis is a chronic cough.

Pneumonia: Pneumonia is maximum normally visible all through winters and reasons the small air sacs of the lungs (alveoli) to get stuffed up with fluid.

Whooping cough: Whooping cough (additionally referred to as pertussis) is on the whole visible in younger youngsters and is exceedingly contagious in nature. It gives as uncontrollable violent coughing.

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV): RSV is on the whole visible in babies and youngsters and may bring about continual bronchitis and pneumonia. It gives with intense ache withinside the chest and is frequently visible all through top winters.

Sinusitis: Sinusitis is a higher breathing tract contamination that could gift in congestion, headache, and cough. Sinusitis is normally visible in closed areas with terrible airflow.

How the frame typically responds to a virus

As you may be aware, the viruses and microorganisms responsible for abnormal spotting, flu, and other respiratory illnesses, enter the human frame through the nose.

Normally, when those germs enter the nose, they may not be able to leave it because the lining of the nose contains mucus and cilia (the hair-like system within the nose), which allow those germs to get into the respiratory tract.

Prevents These viruses get trapped in the mucus and later reaching the stomach due to the non-stop movement of the cilia. Belly acid neutralizes viruses, therefore preventing disease and contamination.

Does wintry weather resource the unfold of breathing sicknesses?

Let us tell you that, when bloodless air enters the nasal passages, it slows down the build-up of mucus.

When this microorganism passes through the nasal passages, the immune machine is activated and fights off the invader.

However, the test also showed that even bloodless air impairs this immune function, allowing the microorganism to spread infection.

According to the investigation using Harvard, because humans spend more time indoors during the winter season, in which the airflow is terrible, it is easier for the disease to spread to humans living within the same habitat.

They are all breathing the same kind of air as a person who gets the infection. Research has also proven that due to the exceptionally low humidity levels during winter, microorganisms including E. coli, poliovirus, and influenza virus are preserved for longer periods of time.

Researchers have conducted several experiments on guinea pigs to understand the capability of influenza viruses to spread in different temperature and humidity levels.

This turned into mentioning that as the temperature changed to 43 degrees Fahrenheit and the humidity decreased, the virus survived for more than 23 hours.

However, at better humidity levels and temperatures above 90 degrees Fahrenheit, the virus subsided after an hour.

What may be performed to guard the lungs all through winters?

The great and simplest manner for human beings to guard themselves against all sicknesses all through winters is with the aid of using washing their fingers with cleaning soap and water frequently, heading off touching their eyes, nose, or mouth, and staying far from folks who are already ill.

There are a few different precautions that could assist someone copes with wintry weather ailments:

  • During wintry weather, our frame receives worn-out effortlessly as it’s far already running tough to hold the frame temperature normal. Layering the frame with heat garments could assist the frame to modify the temperature lots easier.
  • To save you sinusitis all through winters, one needs to drink masses of the heat of water, hold their environment easy to keep away from dust, and inhale steam to open up the blocked breathing tract and sinuses.
  • People need to get flu shots (vaccine for influenza) each yr to lessen the chance of having the flu.
  • Consumption of multivitamins could assist in boosting immunity all through winters.
  • Vitamin C-wealthy ingredients which include lemon, orange, Indian gooseberry, and guava, could assist in stopping numerous breathing ailments.
  • People with pre-current breathing sicknesses need to carry out respiration sporting events on an everyday foundation to keep their lung function.
  • If the air first-class is horrific around your place, keep away from morning jogs because the poisonous pollution withinside the air is at a top all through that time.
  • Consume warm liquids which include tea, coffee, or soups to assist in keeping the frame temperature.
    Use a humidifier at domestic to save you the drying of the airway.
  • If someone reviews trouble in respiration, has chest ache, weakness, bellyache, dizziness, chronic cough with fever, they need to touch a medical doctor as quickly as possible.



By taking all of the important measures, it is simple to save you the incidence of breathing ailments all through winters.

Consuming a balanced diet, carrying heat garments, getting flu shots, and spending at least an hour below the solar could assist you to hold breathing sicknesses at bay all through wintry weather.

For any queries associated with breathing fitness, talk to a pulmonologist for respiratory health during winter.


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