JCS Lung & Sleep Centre : A129 Madhuban (Preet Vihar) Vikas Marg New Delhi - 110 092

Sleep Apnea

Sleep Apnea: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

Sleep apnea is a potentially serious sleep disorder characterized by the repeated interruption of breathing during sleep. This condition can lead to a range of health complications if left untreated. In this article, we will delve into the different types of sleep apnea, their symptoms, causes, and available treatment options.

Types of Sleep Apnea

There are three main types of sleep apnea: Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA), Central Sleep Apnea (CSA), and Treatment-Emergent Central Sleep Apnea.

Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA): This is the most common form of sleep apnea and occurs when the muscles at the back of the throat relax excessively during sleep, causing a temporary blockage of the airway.

Central Sleep Apnea (CSA): In CSA, the brain fails to send proper signals to the muscles responsible for breathing. As a result, breathing becomes irregular, and the individual may temporarily stop breathing altogether.

Treatment-Emergent Central Sleep Apnea: This type is a combination of OSA and CSA. It occurs when OSA, diagnosed through a sleep study, transitions into CSA when OSA therapy is administered.


Sleep Apnea

Recognizing the Symptoms:

The symptoms of OSA and CSA often overlap, making it crucial to seek medical evaluation if you experience any of the following:

Loud Snoring: Persistent loud snoring is a common indicator of sleep apnea.
Breathing Interruptions: If someone observes that you momentarily stop breathing during sleep, it might be a sign of sleep apnea.
Gasping for Air: Waking up abruptly with a sensation of gasping for air is a red flag.
Dry Mouth and Morning Headaches: Sleep apnea can lead to waking up with a dry mouth and frequent morning headaches.
Insomnia and Hypersomnia: Difficulty staying asleep (insomnia) or excessive daytime sleepiness (hypersomnia) can be indicative of sleep apnea.
Poor Concentration and Irritability: Sleep apnea can lead to cognitive issues, difficulty paying attention, and mood disturbances.

Understanding the Causes:

Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA): The relaxation of throat muscles during sleep narrows or blocks the airway, reducing oxygen levels and triggering the brain to wake the person briefly to reopen the airway.

Central Sleep Apnea (CSA): In CSA, the brain fails to send proper signals for breathing, leading to irregular or paused breathing.

Risk Factors:

Several factors increase the risk of developing sleep apnea:

Excess Weight: Obesity contributes to OSA by causing fat deposits that obstruct the airway.
Anatomical Factors: A narrow throat or enlarged tonsils/adenoids can obstruct airflow.
Gender and Age: Men, especially as they age, have a higher risk of sleep apnea.
Family History: A family history of sleep apnea can increase your susceptibility.
Alcohol and Sedatives: The use of substances that relax throat muscles can worsen OSA.
Smoking: Smoking leads to inflammation and fluid retention in the upper airway, increasing the risk of OSA.
Medical Conditions: Conditions like heart disease, high blood pressure, and diabetes can elevate the risk of sleep apnea.


Untreated sleep apnea can lead to various complications, including:

Daytime Fatigue: Frequent awakenings disrupt restorative sleep, causing daytime drowsiness and irritability.
Heart and Blood Pressure Issues: Sleep apnea can raise blood pressure and increase the risk of heart disease and stroke.
Type 2 Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome: Sleep apnea is associated with insulin resistance and an increased risk of diabetes and metabolic syndrome.
Medicine and Surgery Complications: Sleep apnea can complicate the use of certain medications and anesthesia during surgery.
Liver Problems: Sleep apnea may impact liver function and contribute to fatty liver disease.
Impact on Partners: Loud snoring can affect the sleep quality of those sharing the same bed or room.

Treatment Options

Treating sleep apnea is crucial for improving overall health and quality of life. Treatment options include:

Lifestyle Changes: Weight loss, avoiding alcohol and sedatives, and sleeping on your side can help alleviate symptoms.
Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP): A CPAP machine delivers a steady stream of air to keep the airway open during sleep.
Oral Appliances: These devices reposition the jaw and tongue to keep the airway open.
Surgery: Surgical interventions can include removing excess tissue or correcting structural issues in the airway.
Positional Therapy: Learning to sleep in certain positions that minimize airway obstruction.
Bi-level Positive Airway Pressure (BiPAP): Similar to CPAP, but with variable pressure levels for inhalation and exhalation.

If you suspect you have sleep apnea or exhibit symptoms, it's crucial to consult a healthcare provider for proper diagnosis and treatment. Early intervention can lead to better outcomes and improved well-being. Remember, addressing sleep apnea not only enhances your sleep quality but also reduces the risk of associated health complications.

Lung Cancer

Lung Cancer: Symptoms, Types & Treatments

Understanding Lung Cancer

Lung cancer, a devastating disease impacting countless individuals worldwide, demands immediate attention and treatment. This article delves into the topic of lung cancer, exploring its causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options. By gaining a deeper understanding of this condition, individuals and their loved ones can make informed decisions about their health.

Exploring Lung Cancer Types and Symptoms

Lung cancer manifests through uncontrollable cell growth within the lungs and comprises two primary types: small-cell lung cancer and non-small-cell lung cancer. Further categorized into subtypes such as adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, each type exhibits distinct growth patterns requiring specific treatment approaches.

The symptoms of lung cancer can vary, with some individuals experiencing respiratory-related issues, while others present symptoms connected to the spread of cancer to other body parts. Notably, many lung cancer cases remain asymptomatic until reaching an advanced stage.

Lung Cancer Treatment

Common symptoms include:

  • Persistent or Worsening Cough
  • Chest Pain
  • Shortness of Breath
  • Wheezing
  • Coughing up Blood
  • Chronic Fatigue
  • Unexplained Weight Loss


Additionally, lung cancer can cause other changes in the body, such as recurring pneumonia or the enlargement of lymph nodes in the chest area.

Other types of cancer in the lungs

Lung cancer can manifest in various types beyond the common lung cancer, including lymphomas (cancer in lymph nodes), sarcomas (cancer in bones or soft tissue), and pleural mesothelioma (cancer in the lining of the lungs). These types are treated differently and are not typically referred to as lung cancer.

The staging of lung cancer is based on factors like the size of the primary tumor, its extent into surrounding tissues, and whether it has spread to lymph nodes or other organs. Each type of cancer has its own staging guidelines.

For lung cancer, the general staging is as follows:

Stage 0 (in-situ): Cancer is present in the top lining of the lung or bronchus, without spreading to other lung parts or outside the lung itself.

Stage I: Cancer has not spread outside the lung.

Stage II: Cancer is larger than Stage I, has spread to nearby lymph nodes within the lung, or multiple tumors are present in the same lung lobe.

Stage III: Cancer is larger than Stage II, has spread to nearby lymph nodes or adjacent structures, or multiple tumors are found in a different lobe of the same lung.

Stage IV: Cancer has spread to the other lung, the fluid surrounding the lung, the fluid around the heart, or distant organs.

For small cell lung cancer (SCLC), it can be categorized as limited or extensive stage:

Limited stage SCLC is confined to one lung and may involve lymph nodes in the middle of the chest or above the collarbone on the same side.

Extensive stage SCLC has spread widely throughout one lung or to the other lung, lymph nodes on the opposite side of the lung, or other parts of the body.

These stages and classifications help medical professionals determine the appropriate treatment and prognosis for individuals with lung cancer.

Lung Cancer Treatment & Diagnosis

Facing suspected lung cancer necessitates a thorough diagnostic process to determine its stage and type. This process involves imaging tests, biopsies, and genetic mutation analysis.

Staging the cancer is vital for designing an appropriate treatment plan. Healthcare professionals tailor treatments to meet the unique needs of each individual by determining the extent of cancer's spread. Common treatment options for lung cancer include:

  • Surgery: Surgical removal of cancerous tissue.
  • Chemotherapy: Use of powerful drugs to destroy or shrink cancer cells.
  • Radiation Therapy: Application of high-energy rays to eliminate cancer cells.
  • Targeted Therapy: Use of specific drugs to inhibit the growth and spread of cancer cells.

Often, a multidisciplinary approach involving pulmonologists, surgeons, medical oncologists, and radiation oncologists is adopted to deliver the most effective treatment for each patient's condition.

Lung Cancer Treatment

Clinical Trials and Complementary Medicine

Clinical trials play a crucial role in advancing lung cancer treatment options, evaluating the safety and efficacy of new therapies. Individuals diagnosed with lung cancer are encouraged to explore participation in clinical trials to access potentially groundbreaking treatments.

Complementary and alternative medicine practices may also be considered alongside standard treatments. Complementary medicine includes practices like acupuncture, dietary supplements, massage therapy, hypnosis, and meditation, used in conjunction with conventional treatments. 

Alternative medicine, on the other hand, involves non-traditional therapies replacing standard treatments, such as special diets, high-dose vitamins, herbal preparations, and magnet therapy. It is essential to consult with a healthcare professional before adopting any complementary or alternative medicine practices to assess their safety and potential benefits.

Choosing the Right Lung Cancer Treatment

Selecting the appropriate lung cancer treatment can be challenging. A specialized cancer doctor should be consulted, providing in-depth information about available treatment options based on the type and stage of cancer. These medical professionals can guide patients through the potential risks, benefits, and side effects associated with each treatment method. Seeking a second opinion from another reputable oncologist is also a viable option that can provide further clarity and peace of mind.

In Conclusion

Lung cancer is a complex disease demanding comprehensive understanding and proactive management. By familiarizing themselves with the causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options, individuals affected by lung cancer can take charge of their health journey. Early detection and timely intervention significantly improve the chances of successful treatment and long-term survival.

The Ultimate Guide to Finding the Best Asthma Doctor in Delhi

The Ultimate Guide to Finding the Best Asthma Doctor in Delhi

When it comes to managing asthma, finding the right doctor is paramount to ensure effective treatment and improved quality of life. In Delhi, one name stands out for its expertise in asthma care - Dr. JC Suri. In this comprehensive guide, we will explore the key factors to consider when searching for the best asthma doctor in Delhi and why Dr. JC Suri should be your top choice.

The Importance of Choosing the Right Asthma Doctor

Living with asthma can be challenging, but with the right doctor by your side, you can effectively manage your condition. A knowledgeable and experienced asthma doctor will provide accurate diagnoses, develop personalized treatment plans, and offer ongoing support to help you lead a healthier life.

What Sets Dr. JC Suri Apart

Dr. JC Suri is a renowned asthma specialist in Delhi, known for his exceptional expertise and compassionate care. With over 40+ years of experience in the field, he has garnered a reputation for delivering outstanding results and transforming the lives of his patients.

Extensive Experience and Expertise

Dr. JC Suri's extensive experience in treating asthma sets him apart from other doctors in Delhi. He has successfully treated numerous patients, ranging from mild to severe cases, and has a deep understanding of the condition's complexities.

Personalized Treatment Plans

One of the key advantages of consulting the Best Asthma Doctor in Delhi is his commitment to providing personalized treatment plans. He recognizes that every patient is unique and tailors his approach to suit individual needs. By thoroughly evaluating your symptoms, medical history, and lifestyle, he creates a comprehensive plan to effectively manage your asthma.

Cutting-Edge Diagnostic Techniques

Dr. JC Suri stays at the forefront of medical advancements in asthma care. He utilizes cutting-edge diagnostic techniques to accurately diagnose and assess the severity of your asthma. By leveraging these advanced tools, he can develop a precise treatment strategy that targets the root cause of your symptoms.

Holistic Approach to Asthma Management

In addition to conventional medical interventions, Dr. JC Suri takes a holistic approach to asthma management. He emphasizes the importance of lifestyle modifications, including dietary adjustments and exercise routines, to complement medical treatments and promote overall well-being.

Patient-Centric Care

He believes in building strong doctor-patient relationships based on trust, empathy, and effective communication. He takes the time to understand your concerns, educates you about your condition, and involves you in the decision-making process. This patient-centric approach ensures that you receive the best care possible.

Positive Patient Feedback and Success Stories

Their success in treatments is reflected in the positive feedback and success stories shared by his patients. Many individuals have experienced significant improvement in their asthma symptoms under his care, leading to a better quality of life.

Comprehensive Asthma Education

Dr. JC Suri recognizes the importance of educating patients about asthma management. During consultations, he provides detailed explanations about the condition, its triggers, and effective self-care strategies. By empowering patients with knowledge, he enables them to take an active role in managing their asthma.

Collaborative Approach with Specialists

In complex asthma cases, Dr. JC Suri collaborates with other specialists, such as allergists, pulmonologists, and nutritionists, to provide comprehensive care. This multidisciplinary approach ensures that all aspects of your asthma are addressed, leading to better treatment outcomes.

Research and Innovation

Dr. JC Suri actively engages in research and stays updated with the latest advancements in asthma treatment. By integrating scientific knowledge and innovative techniques into his practice, he continuously improves the quality of care provided to his patients.

The Ultimate Guide to Finding the Best Asthma Doctor in Delhi

Convenient Location and Modern

Dr. JC Suri's clinic is conveniently located in Delhi, making it easily accessible to patients from various parts of the city. The clinic is equipped with state-of-the-art facilities and modern medical equipment, ensuring that patients receive the highest standard of care in a comfortable environment.

Supportive and Friendly Staff

Apart from Dr. JC Suri's expertise, his clinic boasts a team of supportive and friendly staff members. From the moment you step into the clinic, you will be greeted with warmth and professionalism. The staff is dedicated to ensuring a smooth and pleasant experience for every patient.

Timely Appointments and Minimal Waiting Time

At Dr. JC Suri's clinic, appointments are scheduled in a manner that allows for minimal waiting time. The efficient management of appointments ensures that patients' valuable time is respected, and they can receive timely care without unnecessary delays.

Commitment to Continued Professional Development

Dr. JC Suri understands the importance of staying updated with the latest advancements in asthma care. He actively participates in conferences, workshops, and seminars to expand his knowledge and refine his skills. This commitment to continued professional development enables him to provide the most up-to-date and effective treatments to his patients.

Transparent Communication and Informed Consent

Dr. JC Suri believes in transparent communication with his patients. He takes the time to explain the diagnosis, treatment options, potential risks, and benefits in a clear and understandable manner. This allows patients to make informed decisions about their care and actively participate in their treatment journey.

Accessibility and Availability

Dr. JC Suri understands that emergencies can arise, and asthma symptoms can worsen unexpectedly. That is why he ensures his availability to his patients beyond regular clinic hours. In case of emergencies, his patients can reach out to him, providing peace of mind and timely assistance when needed the most.

Commitment to Excellence and Patient Satisfaction

Dr. JC Suri's commitment to excellence is evident in his dedication to achieving the best possible outcomes for his patients. He values patient feedback and continuously strives to enhance the quality of care provided. The high level of patient satisfaction is a testament to his expertise and compassionate approach.


When it comes to finding the best asthma doctor in Delhi, Dr. JC Suri is an exceptional choice. With his extensive experience, personalized approach, cutting-edge techniques, and patient-centric care, he is dedicated to providing the highest quality asthma management. By choosing Dr. JC Suri as your asthma doctor, you can expect comprehensive care, effective treatment plans, and improved quality of life. Don't let asthma hold you back - consult Dr. JC Suri and take control of your health today.

Best Doctor for Tuberculosis in Delhi

Best Doctor for Tuberculosis in Delhi

Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It primarily affects the lungs but can also impact other organs. TB spreads through the air when an infected person coughs or sneezes. Early detection and treatment from the Best Doctor for Tuberculosis in Delhi are necessary for managing the disease effectively.

Although your body can harbor the bacteria that cause tuberculosis, your immune system usually can prevent you from becoming sick. For this reason, doctors make a distinction between:

Latent TB: You have a TB infection, but the bacteria in your body are inactive and cause no symptoms. Latent TB, also called inactive TB or TB infection, isn’t contagious. Latent TB can turn into active TB, so treatment is important.

Active TB: Also called TB disease, this condition makes you sick and, in most cases, can spread to others. It can occur weeks or years after infection with the TB bacteria.

Best Doctor for Tuberculosis in Delhi

Signs And Symptoms :

Common symptoms of tuberculosis (TB) disease encompass sensations of illness or weakness, unintended weight loss, elevated body temperature, and excessive sweating during the night. When TB affects the lungs, additional symptoms may manifest such as persistent coughing, chest discomfort, and the expulsion of blood while coughing. The specific symptoms of TB disease in other body parts vary depending on the affected area.

How TB Spreads

TB bacteria are spread through the air from one person to another. The TB bacteria are put into the air when a person with TB disease of the lungs or throat coughs, speaks or sings. People nearby may breathe in these bacteria and become infected.

When a person breathes in TB bacteria, the bacteria can settle in the lungs and begin to grow. From there, they can move through the blood to other parts of the body, such as the kidney, spine, and brain.

TB disease in the lungs or throat can be infectious. This means that the bacteria can be spread to other people. TB in other parts of the body, such as the kidney or spine, is usually not infectious.

Meet Dr. JC Suri – Best Doctor for Tuberculosis in Delhi:

Dr. JC Suri is Best Doctor for Tuberculosis in Delhi and highly experienced and trusted pulmonologist specializing in tuberculosis treatment in Delhi. With a distinguished career spanning over 40+ years, Dr. Suri has successfully treated numerous TB patients, earning him a reputation as one of the best doctors in the field.

Why Choose Dr. JC Suri for Tuberculosis Treatment?

Expertise and Qualifications: Dr. Suri possesses extensive knowledge and expertise in the diagnosis and management of tuberculosis. He is a respected member of several medical associations and stays updated with the latest advancements in TB treatment.

Personalized Approach: Dr. Suri believes in providing personalized care to his patients, tailoring treatment plans according to their specific needs and conditions.

Comprehensive Treatment: Dr. Suri offers a comprehensive range of services for tuberculosis, including accurate diagnosis, effective treatment regimens, and ongoing monitoring to ensure optimal recovery.

Collaborative Care: Dr. Suri works closely with a dedicated team of healthcare professionals to provide holistic care and support to his patients.

Specialized Services Offered by Dr. JC Suri:

Accurate Diagnosis: Dr. Suri utilizes advanced diagnostic techniques to identify tuberculosis accurately. This includes chest X-rays, sputum tests, and molecular testing methods.

Individualized Treatment Plans: Dr. Suri creates tailored treatment plans for each patient, considering factors such as the type and severity of tuberculosis, medical history, and lifestyle.

Medication Management: Dr. Suri prescribes the most effective anti-tuberculosis medications, closely monitoring their efficacy and adjusting the treatment regimen as necessary.

Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR) Tuberculosis Treatment: Dr. Suri specializes in treating multi-drug resistant tuberculosis, a challenging form of disease that requires specialized expertise. He employs a combination of powerful medications and closely monitors the patient’s response to ensure effective management.

Supportive Care and Counseling: Dr. Suri understands the emotional and psychological impact of tuberculosis on patients. Along with medical treatment, he provides counseling and support to help patients cope with the challenges of the disease and maintain a positive outlook.

Follow-up and Monitoring: Dr. Suri emphasizes the importance of regular follow-up visits to assess treatment progress and make necessary adjustments. He closely monitors patients’ response to treatment, conducts relevant tests, and ensures they receive comprehensive care throughout their recovery journey.

Dr. JC Suri’s patients have expressed their gratitude and satisfaction with his exceptional care and expertise in treating tuberculosis. Here are some testimonials and reviews from his patients highlighting their positive experiences and successful outcomes under his guidance.

Don’t delay in seeking expert tuberculosis treatment. Book an appointment with the Best Doctor for Tuberculosis in Delhi today to receive the best care and support on your journey toward recovery.


Why Asthma is Worse in Winter? Understanding the Causes and How to Cope

Winter and Asthma

Asthma is a chronic respiratory condition characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways, which can make breathing difficult. Many people with asthma experience more symptoms during the winter months. There are several reasons why this may be the case.

One of the main reasons is the increased exposure to indoor allergens such as dust mites and mold. These allergens can thrive in warm, humid environments and are often present in homes during the winter months when the windows are closed and the heating is on. Additionally, cold air can also irritate the airways and trigger asthma symptoms.

Another reason for the worsening of asthma in winter is the increased risk of respiratory infections. The cold weather may lead to more time spent indoors, where people are in closer contact with each other and can more easily spread germs. This can increase the risk of getting a cold or the flu, which can then lead to asthma exacerbations.

Dr. JC Suri is one of the Best Pulmonologists in Delhi and can help you in managing your asthma. He can work with you to develop an asthma action plan and adjust your treatment plan as needed to help you manage your symptoms during the winter months.

It is important to take steps to reduce your exposure to indoor allergens and to take precautions to avoid respiratory infections. This may include cleaning your home regularly to reduce dust and mold, using air filters, and keeping your home well-ventilated.

If you are experiencing worsening of your asthma symptoms during the winter months, consult with Dr. JC Suri, to get the possible treatment. He can help you to understand the factors that may be contributing to your symptoms and work with you to develop a plan to manage them.

Weather changes, particularly changes in temperature and humidity, can have a significant impact. Cold, dry air can cause the airways to constrict, making it more difficult to breathe. This can also make the airways more sensitive to irritants such as dust and pollution, which can trigger asthma symptoms.

On the other hand, hot and humid weather can also aggravate its symptoms. The increased humidity can make it harder for the airways to clear mucus, which can lead to increased coughing and wheezing. Additionally, high temperatures can cause increased air pollution, which can also trigger  symptoms.

Changes in barometric pressure, such as those that occur during storms or cold fronts, can also affect. These changes can cause the airways to constrict, making it more difficult to breathe and triggering  symptoms.

Allergic reactions to pollen and other allergens are also more common during certain seasons

It is important for people with asthma to be aware of how weather changes may affect their symptoms and to take steps to manage them. This may include adjusting medication, avoiding outdoor activities during times when pollen or pollution levels are high, and staying indoors when the weather is cold and dry.

Consulting with a pulmonologist such as Dr. JC Suri can help in better understanding how weather changes may affect your asthma and developing a plan to manage your symptoms.

Don’t Let Winter Weather Trigger Asthma: How to Stay Ahead of Symptoms

Staying ahead of asthma symptoms during the winter can be challenging, but with the right knowledge and strategies, it is possible to manage them effectively.

Here are some tips to help you stay ahead during the winter:

  • Develop an asthma action plan: Work with your healthcare provider to develop an  action plan that includes information on how to recognize symptoms and what to do when they occur.
  • Monitor your symptoms: Keep track of your symptoms, including how often they occur and how severe they are. This information can help you and your healthcare provider identify triggers and make adjustments to your treatment plan as needed.
  • Control indoor allergens: Dust mites and mold can thrive in warm, humid environments can trigger symptoms. Keep your home clean and free of dust, use air filters, and keep the humidity level low.
  • Avoid cold air: Cold air can cause the airways to constrict, making it more difficult to breathe. When going outside, cover your mouth and nose with a scarf or mask to warm the air before it enters your lungs.
  • Exercise indoors: Regular exercise is important for managing symptoms, but it can be difficult to do when it’s cold outside. Try to exercise indoors in a warm, humid environment.
  • Get a flu shot: Respiratory infections, such as the flu, can worsen asthma symptoms. Get a flu shot every year to protect yourself from getting sick.
  • Keep your medication with you: Always carry your asthma medication with you, especially during the winter when symptoms can be more severe.
  • Consult with Dr. JC Suri: If you are experiencing worsening of your asthma symptoms during the winter months, consult with Dr. JC Suri, the best pulmonologist in Delhi. He can help you to understand the factors that may be contributing to your symptoms and work with you to develop a plan to manage them.

By following these tips, you can stay ahead of asthma symptoms during the winter and enjoy a healthy and active life.



How Cold Weather Affects Your Breathing

It’s Almost Winter. Here’s How Cold Weather Affects Your Breathing

Cold weather can lead to runny noses, and not just because of flu season.

Colder air may feel wonderful after a long summer, especially if you’re exercising outside. But as the temperature drops, breathing might become more stinging.

You might be curious about how breathing in cold weather is affected when you feel the sting of the cold air in your lungs. Most of the time, a slight burn subsides as you become used to the chilly temps.

However, those who have certain respiratory diseases, including asthma, may be more in danger from cold air.

Cold air is dry air

It’s not always the cold that causes problems with cold air. Our lungs look strong enough to withstand temperatures below zero. Ask any athlete who participates in winter training in the north.

The fact that cold air carries significantly less moisture than warm air is the bigger issue. Additionally, if you have respiratory problems, the dry air may make it difficult for you to breathe.

The dry air in your house, heated by a furnace or boiler, can dry out the mucus in your sinuses even when you’re not outside, which makes it simpler for infections to take hold.

That chilly, dry air can irritate the airways and result in respiratory symptoms like coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath for anyone who has asthma, COPD, or other lung conditions.

Cold air means more mucus

Your body may overcompensate by making more mucus when your mucus dries out in cool, dry weather. Your blood vessels enlarge as a result of the cold air entering your nose, increasing mucus production. Because of this, you frequently have a runny nose when you come inside from the cold.

Again, mucus plays a crucial role in keeping your airways clean, avoiding infections, and maintaining the moisture in your lungs and nasal cavity. Although it is a natural response, it may worsen congestion and other symptoms if you have ongoing breathing issues.

Flu season doesn’t help

Through a seasonal increase in cold and influenza viruses, cold weather can also have an indirect impact on your ability to breathe. Both the typical cold and the flu can produce an increase in mucus production.

This extra mucus can then enter the lungs as phlegm, worsen lower respiratory symptoms, and cause coughing.

More mucus and phlegm can worsen asthma symptoms or other respiratory conditions even among otherwise healthy individuals. According to 75% of people with asthma, cold and flu viruses can exacerbate their symptoms.

These viruses spread more readily in the winter because cold weather keeps us indoors and inhibits some of our normal immune responses (like when it dries out our mucus).

This can make it hard to tell if the symptoms you have are just from breathing cold air or because you’re coming down with something.

Generally speaking, if your symptoms subside when you leave the cold, the chilly air was likely the cause. If not, there might be more going on, in which case it might be time to see a doctor.

Also, keep in mind that you should always tell your doctor if you experience any sudden or inexplicable shortness of breath.

How Cold Weather Affects Your Breathing

How to get relief and stay healthy

Take special care during the colder months if you are prone to breathing issues because of asthma, COPD, or other respiratory disorders. Here are a few tips to help you stay as healthy as possible when the cold air hits your lungs and airways.

1. Breathe through your nose. Your nose warms and moistens cold air more effectively than your mouth, so breathing through your nose may help reduce discomfort from cold air.

2. Put a scarf over your nose and mouth. This creates insulation against the cold air and traps some heat from your breath.

3. Stay hydrated. You become dehydrated more rapidly in dry air, therefore it’s crucial to increase your hydration intake in the winter.

Maintaining hydration will keep your mucus and phlegm moist, improving the insulation of your lungs and nasal passages against the cold.

4. Use a humidifier indoors. When the air inside your home is already bone-dry, it can be difficult to ward off the dry air outside. You can avoid drying out before you even step outside by using an indoor humidifier.

5. Make sure you keep your medicines in stock. If you take quick-relief medications for COPD or asthma, make sure you have them on hand and ready to go before you venture outside in the cold. If you begin to experience symptoms, take your medications as soon as possible.

6. Monitor air quality. In people who have respiratory conditions, air pollution can make their symptoms worse. Keep an eye on the forecast for the quality of the air, and when pollution levels are high, stay inside.

Most of the time, cooler air has no discernible impact on how we breathe. Usually, it just denotes some minor discomfort. But not everyone can say that. You can discover that cold air aggravates your respiratory conditions, such as asthma, COPD, or other one.

Additionally, your health can vary, and certain diseases may increase your vulnerability to respiratory problems. Consult your doctor if you find it more difficult to breathe in the cold and make sure you’re ready to go outside.

sleep apnea test

What Type Of Sleep Apnea Test Is Right For You?

Dr. JC Suri talks about, Complete awareness on what type of Sleep Test is better for you?

A common disorder called sleep apnea makes it such that you shortly stop breathing while you sleep. Long-term, it may have serious health consequences if untreated.

You will probably go through an overnight sleep apnea test that tracks your breathing if your doctor suspects that you may have sleep apnea.

Typically, sleep studies are conducted between the hours of 10 p.m. and 6 a.m. If you’re a morning or evening person, this time period might not be ideal for you. Instead, a home test can be suggested.

You’ll spend the night in a separate room, equipped in a manner reminiscent of a hotel room with your comfort in mind. Bring your usual nighttime items, such as pajamas.

Sleep Apnea Test is used for?

To identify sleep disorders, a sleep test is used. Typical sleep problems include:

Sleep apnea is a medical disease that causes brief breathing pauses while you’re asleep. Throughout a single night of sleep, you can experience multiple recurring instances of breathing disruptions. As many as 30 episodes can be there per hour.

You may have trouble falling asleep and/or staying asleep all through the night if you have insomnia.

Restless leg syndrome makes your legs feel uncomfortable and causes a strong need to move them when you’re trying to fall asleep.

An illness of the nervous system called narcolepsy. It causes tiredness during the day. Additionally, you can suddenly find yourself napping all day.

Studies on sleep are non-invasive. The donation of a blood sample is not required. But your body will be fitted with a number of wires. This makes it possible for the sleep specialist to keep an eye on your breathing, mental activity, and other vital indications while you’re sleeping.

The more at ease you are, the more accurately the technician can monitor your sleep.

After you nod off, the technician will keep an eye on the following:

  • Your brain waves and eye movements, which reveal your sleep pattern
  • Your blood pressure and heart rate
  • Your breathing, including snoring, breathing pauses, and oxygen levels
  • Your posture and any motions of your limbs
  • For sleep research, there are two formats: whole night and split night.

If you take part in a full-night sleep study, your sleep will be monitored all through the night. If sleep apnea is diagnosed, you might need to return to the lab later to set up a breathing machine.

The first half of the night is utilized to track your sleep during a split-night research. In the event that sleep apnea is identified, the treatment device is set up during the second half of the night.

Pros and cons of in-lab sleep study: 

In-lab sleep tests have advantages and disadvantages. Talk to your doctor about your test and preference.


Best test currently in use- The most accurate method of diagnosing sleep apnea is an in-lab sleep test.

Possibility of studying two nights in a row- Split-night studies, as opposed to full-night and at-home tests, enable diagnosis and treatment in a single night.

Best test for a particular kind of work- To achieve an accurate diagnosis, people who pose a major risk to themselves or others if they fall asleep at work should take part in an in-lab sleep study. This includes pilots, police officers, and anyone who drive for taxis, buses, or ride-sharing services.

Best choice for those who suffer from various issues or sleep disorders. People with additional medical issues, such as sleep difficulties and heart and lung ailments, are more suited for in-lab monitoring.


Costlier than an at-home test- Although not all insurance companies cover this test, if you have insurance, your insurer might pay all or part of the expense. Before you may take an in-lab exam, some providers demand the results of an at-home test..

Less accessible. In-lab research necessitates travel to and from a sleep lab. This can take a long time or cost a lot depending on where you reside.

Longer wait times. You could have to wait several weeks or even months to take the test, depending on where you reside and the demand for this kind of test.

Less convenient. It’s more likely that taking an in-lab sleep test will interfere with your everyday activities and obligations or interfere with your work schedule.

Set sleep study hours. Between the hours of 10 p.m. and 6 a.m., many sleep studies are conducted. An at-home test might be preferable if you have a diverse sleep schedule.

At-home sleep test 

The motions, posture, and sleep cycles that are monitored during an in-lab exam are not monitored during an at-home test.

You can go to bed at your usual time the night of the test. To ensure that you correctly connect the monitoring sensors, pay close attention to the kit’s instructions.

Most in-home sleep apnea monitors are straightforward to set up. Typically, they consist of the following elements:

  • A finger clip that gauges your heart rate and blood oxygen levels.
  • A nasal cannula to gauge airflow and oxygen levels.
  • Sensors that monitor your chest’s rise and fall.
  • An at-home test does not track your movements, position, or sleep cycles the way an in-lab test does.

Your doctor will receive the test findings after you complete it. If therapy is required, they will get in touch with you to discuss the findings and decide on it.

Pros and Cons of a sleep test at home

Sleep tests performed at home offer benefits and drawbacks. You should discuss your preferred test with your doctor.


More convenient-  Home testing is more practical than laboratory tests. You can continue with your regular bedtime routine, which may give a more accurate indication of how you breathe while you sleep than in-lab testing.

Less costly- The cost of testing taken at home is about lower.

More accessible- For those who reside a great distance from a sleep centre, at-home tests might be a more practical choice. The monitor can even be mailed to you if necessary.

Faster results-  As soon as you receive the portable breathing monitor, you can start the test. Compared to a lab test, this might yield quicker results.


Less accurate- Test errors are more likely to occur in the absence of a technician. All cases of sleep apnea cannot be reliably detected by at-home tests. If you have a high-risk profession or another medical condition, this could be dangerous.

May lead to an in-lab sleep study-  Regardless of the outcome of your test, your doctor can still advise an in-lab sleep test. Additionally, you might still need to spend the night in the lab to have a treatment device fitted if you are diagnosed with sleep apnea.

Doesn’t test for other sleep problems-  Only breathing, heart rate, and oxygen levels are assessed during at-home examinations. This test is unable to identify narcolepsy or other prevalent sleep disorders.

Test results

The outcomes of your in-lab or at-home sleep apnea test will be interpreted by a physician or sleep specialist.

The Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI) is a scale that physicians use to identify sleep apnea. This scale contains a calculation of the number of apneas, or breath pauses, per hour of study-related sleep.

Less than five apneas per hour are typical in those without sleep apnea or with a moderate version of the condition. More than 30 sleep apneas per hour are possible in those with severe sleep apnea.

When determining whether you have sleep apnea, doctors also check your oxygen levels. Although there isn’t a set threshold for sleep apnea, if your blood oxygen levels are lower than normal, it could be an indication.

Your doctor might advise repeating the test if the results are uncertain. Your doctor might suggest an additional test if sleep apnea is not identified but your symptoms persist.


Treatment options

Your level of sleep apnea will determine your course of treatment. Sometimes all that is needed is a change in lifestyle. These may consist of:

  • Losing weight
  • Using a specific pillow for sleep apnea
  • Changing the location of your bed

Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)-  There are numerous efficient medical sleep apnea therapy alternatives. Among them are: Constant positive airway pressure (CPAP). The CPAP machine is the most widely used and efficient treatment for sleep apnea. With this tool, your airways are inflated with the aid of a little mask.

Oral devices- Your throat may not close when you breathe if you have a dental appliance that moves your lower jaw forward. In cases of mild to moderate sleep apnea, these may be helpful.

Nasal device-  Some people with mild to severe sleep apnea have been demonstrated to benefit from Provent Sleep Apnea Therapy, a tiny bandage-like device. It is positioned right inside the nostrils and exerts pressure to maintain your airways’ openness.

Oxygen delivery-  To raise blood oxygen levels, oxygen may occasionally be provided in addition to a CPAP machine.

Surgery- When conventional therapies fail to work, surgery may be a possibility to change the way your airways are built. There are numerous surgical procedures available to treat sleep apnea.

Vital functions, such as breathing patterns, pulse rate, and oxygen levels, are measured during both in-lab and at-home sleep apnea examinations. Your doctor can diagnose sleep apnea for you using the results of these tests.

The most precise test to identify sleep apnea is a polysomnography (PSG) performed in a lab. The accuracy of tests for sleep apnea done at home is adequate. Additionally, they are more practical and economical.


Note: Do not consider JC SURI Blogs as medical advice. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified healthcare providers because of something you have read on JC Suri.

You should always speak with your doctor before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your care plan or treatment. If you think you may have a medical emergency, call your doctor immediately.



Sleep Study (Polysomnogram)

Sleep Apnea Tests and Diagnosis

Sleep Study (Polysomnogram), also termed a sleep study, is a thorough examination performed to diagnose sleep disorders. Your blood oxygen levels, pulse rate, breathing rate, and brain waves are all monitored during a polysomnography test.

A sleep center or a hospital sleep disorder unit may perform polysomnography. In order to accommodate shift workers who generally sleep during the day, polysomnography is occasionally performed during the day.

Your doctor might request that you undergo a polysomnogram, or sleep apnea test if you exhibit sleep apnea symptoms (PSG). This could be carried out at home or in a facility for sleep disorders.

A polysomnogram, often known as a sleep study, is a multi-part examination that electronically transmits and records particular physical activities you engage in while you’re sleeping. An experienced sleep specialist reviews the recordings to determine whether you have sleep apnea or another sort of sleep problem.

If the test reveals sleep apnea, other sleep tests may be required to determine the best course of action.

Polysomnography may be used to start or modify your treatment plan if you’ve already been diagnosed with a sleep problem, in addition to aiding in the diagnosis of sleep disorders.

You might occasionally be able to complete the sleep study at home. Obstructive sleep apnea is the main type of sleep apnea that is diagnosed by a minimum number of sensors used in home sleep testing (OSA).

What to Expect During a Sleep Study (Polysomnogram)

If you should continue taking your drugs or stop them altogether before the test, your doctor will advise you. On the day of the test, avoid caffeine and alcohol because they may affect the results. Bring cozy pajamas, a book or magazine, and, if you have a specific pillow, it.

If you’re undergoing a sleep center lab, you’ll be given a private sleep center or hospital room for the night of your sleep study. There will be a central monitoring station nearby where medical professionals may keep an eye on patients while they are sleeping.

You’ll have access to a private restroom; just let the technicians know when you’ll be using it so they can disconnect the wires that are connecting you to the monitoring system.

You’ll be hooked to equipment that could seem uncomfortable. However, most people have minimal trouble falling asleep.

For home testing, there is also more portable equipment available, particularly for simpler cases or circumstances.

Equipment Frequently Used for a Sleep Study

Surface electrodes will be applied to your face and scalp during a sleep study to transmit recorded electrical signals to the measuring devices. These signals, which are produced by the activity of your muscles and brain, are digitally captured. Your breathing is measured by belts around your chest and abdomen.

Your finger is attached to an oximeter probe that gauges the amount of oxygen in your blood.

Why it’s done

In order to determine if, when, and why your sleep patterns are disrupted, polysomnography tracks the stages and cycles of your sleep.

Home sleep apnea testing equipment comes in a variety of designs and configurations. They often keep track of your heart rate, oxygen saturation, breathing rate, and airflow. One technique additionally includes data on blood vessel tone.

Non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep is the first stage of the typical sleeping process. Your brain waves significantly slow down during this phase, as shown by electroencephalography (EEG).

In contrast to later stages of sleep, your eyes don’t move back and forth rapidly during NREM. After an hour or two of NREM sleep, your brain activity picks up again, and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep begins. Most dreaming occurs during REM sleep.

You normally go through multiple sleep cycles a night, cycling between NREM and REM sleep in about 90 minutes. Sleep disorders can disturb this sleep process.

Your doctor may recommend polysomnography if he or she suspects you have:

Sleep apnea or another sleep-related breathing disorder: In this condition, your breathing repeatedly stops and starts during sleep.

Periodic limb movement disorder: In this sleep disorder, you involuntarily flex and extend your legs while sleeping. This condition is sometimes associated with restless legs syndrome.

Narcolepsy: You experience overwhelming daytime drowsiness and sudden attacks of sleep in this condition.
REM sleep behavior disorder. This sleep disorder involves acting out dreams as you sleep.

Unusual behaviors during sleep: Your doctor may perform this test if you do unusual activities during sleep, such as walking, moving around a lot, or rhythmic movements.

Unexplained chronic insomnia: If you consistently have trouble falling asleep or staying asleep, your doctor may recommend polysomnography.


Polysomnography is a noninvasive, painless test. The most common side effect is a skin irritation caused by the adhesive used to attach test sensors to your skin.

How you prepare

Before polysomnography, you can be instructed to abstain from alcoholic beverages and caffeinated foods during the afternoon and evening. Both caffeine and alcohol can alter your sleep patterns and may exacerbate the signs of some sleep problems.

It is not advised to take a nap in the afternoon before a sleep study. Before your sleep study, you could be requested to take a shower or a bath. However, avoid using any lotions, gels, colognes, or makeup prior to the test because these can prevent the electrodes from working properly.

You can either pick up the equipment at your doctor’s office or have it brought to you for a home sleep apnea test. You’ll receive instructions outlining how to operate the tools.

Do you find yourself waking up tired, or maybe with a headache or dry mouth? Obstructive sleep apnea could be to blame. This happens when your breathing is interrupted during sleep, often for more than ten seconds.

The Facts About At-home Sleep Tests

They monitor breathing, not actual sleep.

A sleep test measures respiratory characteristics rather than the actual sleep in order to assess a patient for sleep apnea. The duration of your light or deep sleep, for example, won’t be measured during the sleep test.

Instead, it will gauge how long it takes you to breathe, how hard you have to work to breathe, and whether your breathing is shallow or deep.

Sleep Study (Polysomnogram)

Your doctor needs to prescribe it:

This isn’t an over-the-counter test. Your primary care physician or a physician at a sleep clinic can order it for you to use at home.

It uses sensors to detect breathing patterns:

One of the sensors has a tiny probe that you wear over your finger to assess oxygen levels. Another mask with tubes will be placed over your ears and placed in your nostrils; it will resemble an oxygen mask.

To measure the rise and fall of your chest and belly while you breathe, additional sensors are attached to them.

It’s a small commitment:

Most at-home sleep tests are used just for one night. It’s also less expensive than a sleep study conducted in a clinic ― anywhere from a third to a fifth of the cost of doing an in-lab study and often covered by insurance.

It’s convenient:

With an at-home study, you’ll be in the comfort of your surroundings, which can mean a more accurate reading of how you sleep.

It doesn’t completely rule out apnea:

Your results will be submitted to your doctor after a sleep technologist has examined them after the test. If your symptoms don’t go away, your doctor can suggest an in-lab experiment.

Home tests can occasionally be wrong because, for example, your sensors might stop working in the middle of the night. In a lab, a doctor is present to keep an eye on you.

You might have other sleep issues:

Breathing issues are not a sign of all sleep disorders. You might not have apnea if your symptoms continue to exist. Movement disorders that cause nocturnal restlessness and narcolepsy, a neurological illness that interferes with the body’s sleep-wake cycles and results in excessive sleepiness, are two more prevalent sleep problems that do not impact the airways.

Together, you and your doctor can determine the cause.

Other Tests for Sleep Apnea

  • EEG (electroencephalogram) to measure and record brain wave activity
  • EMG (electromyogram) to record muscle activity such as face twitches, teeth grinding, and leg movements, and to look for REM stage sleep. During REM sleep, intense dreams often happen as the brain has heightened activity.
  • EOG (electrooculogram) to record eye movements. These movements are important in determining the different sleep stages, particularly REM stage sleep.
  • EKG (electrocardiogram) to record heart rate and rhythm
  • Nasal airflow sensor to record airflow
  • Snore microphone to record snoring activity

After a Sleep Study

In the morning, the technicians take off the sensors attached to your skin, and you go back to your everyday activities.
It takes the sleep specialist some time to review the study’s hundreds of pages of data. They’ll send the results to your doctor. Once your doctor reviews them, you’ll meet to talk about the findings and next steps.

Sleep Study Results

  • The data will include information about your sleep, such as:
  • How long do you spend in each sleep stage
  • How often do you wake up
  • Whether you stop breathing or have trouble breathing
  • Whether you snore
  • Body position
  • Limb movements
  • Unusual brain activity patterns


Note: Do not consider JC SURI Blogs as medical advice. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified healthcare providers because of something you have read on JC Suri. You should always speak with your doctor before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your care plan or treatment. If you think you may have a medical emergency, call your doctor immediately.



Lung Infection: Types, Symptoms & Treatment

What Is a Lung Infection?

When a virus or bacteria that causes illness damages and inflames the lungs, it is known as a lung infection. This occurs as immune cells surge to the lungs’ airways or lung tissue to battle the infection.

Viral, bacterial, fungal, parasitic, or fungal infections of the lungs are possible. Sometimes, lung infections are brought on by multiple types of microbes. For example, bacterial pneumonia might result from viral bronchitis.

Lung infections can range from minor to serious. Lung infections can affect anyone at any age, but some forms are more prevalent in particular age groups. Lung infections may develop in the tissues that surround the lungs or in various areas of the airways (such as the bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli).

Common Lung Infection Symptoms

Any kind of lung infection, no matter what the origin, usually results in a specific set of symptoms. The following are a few of the most typical signs of a lung infection:

Cough: Can be light or severe; can be dry (nonproductive—does not produce mucus) or “wet” (productive).

Mucus production: Mucus can be colorless or have an unpleasant odor, and it can also be transparent, yellow, green, brown, or rust-colored.

Wheezing: Wheezing both during exhalation and occasionally during inhalation. When breathing in, a distinct sound called stridor, which is louder than wheezing, could occur. Infections of the airways above the lungs, such as those of the windpipe, can cause stridor (trachea).

Fever: A temperature that is high, very high, or low grade (less than 100 degrees F).

Rigors (shaking chills) or chills: Rigors (shaking chills) might appear as a fever rises, while sweats (which can be drenching) can occasionally appear as the fever falls.  

Upper respiratory symptoms: Headaches, laryngitis, hoarseness, nasal congestion, and sore throat are frequent, especially with viral infections.

Lung infection symptoms

Other possible symptoms of a lung infection include:

  • Muscle aches (myalgia)
  • Joint aches (arthralgia)
  • Loss of appetite
  • Fatigue
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Diarrhea

Types of Lung Infections 

Depending on how they impact the lungs and airways, distinct types of lung infections can be identified.

There can be overlap between some organisms that are more likely to cause one sort of lung infection than another. For instance, some viruses can lead to pneumonia and bronchitis.


An infection of the major airways (bronchi) that connect the trachea to the smaller airways is known as bronchitis.

A viral infection is the most frequent cause of bronchitis. Bacterial infections are to contribute 1% to 10% of cases.


The smaller airways (bronchioles) between the larger bronchi and the tiny alveoli, where oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange takes place, become infected and are known as bronchiolitis.

Children under the age of two frequently develop bronchiolitis, which is also the main reason for newborn hospitalizations in the first year of life. Despite this, most kids who contract it don’t need to be hospitalized.

Children with bronchiolitis may experience recurring wheezing or asthma throughout childhood and even into adulthood after they have recovered.

Common Cold

Children lose 60% to 80% of school, and adults lose 30% to 50% of their workdays due to the common cold.

Children experience six to eight colds on average every year throughout the first six years of life. The average healthy adult has three to four colds a year.


A group of typical viruses that can cause lung infections are called non-polio enteroviruses. They can cause severe infections in other sections of the body, such as encephalitis, myocarditis, and meningitis, which all cause inflammation of the protective layer around the brain. They also cause hand, foot, and mouth disease (enterovirus A71) (brain infection or inflammation).

Enterovirus-induced lung infections sometimes begin with cold-like symptoms such as a fever, runny nose, body aches, and occasionally a rash.


Although it can sometimes damage the bronchi, croup mostly affects the structures above the lungs (the larynx and trachea).

Croup is typically brought on by viruses, such as Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) and common cold viruses, but it can also be brought on by a bacterial infection.

A low-grade fever and runny nose are frequent croup symptoms before the distinctive barking cough that worsens at night.


The flu, often known as seasonal influenza, is one of the most typical lung infections. When a person coughs, sneezes, or simply chats, droplets that are released from their bodies are able to spread the influenza A and influenza B viruses. The flu is particularly contagious because of this.

Symptoms of the flu include:

  • Fever and chills
  • Sore throat
  • Nasal congestion or a runny nose
  • Body aches
  • Headaches
  • Fatigue
  • A mild cough

Whooping Cough (Pertussis)

Despite the misconception that whooping cough (pertussis) is a lung infection that can now be avoided with a vaccine, people still contract it.

Although whooping cough can cause mild to severe disease, it primarily affects babies and young children; about 50% of infants with whooping cough under the age of 12 months require hospitalization.

Pneumonia develops in about one-fourth of infants and young children who acquire whooping cough. Encephalitis is a less frequent (0.3%) consequence of whooping cough. 


Tuberculosis (TB) is a lung infection that is more common in developing regions of the world. It is caused by a bacteria called Mycobacteria tuberculosis.


The smallest of airways (alveoli), where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide occurs, are affected by pneumonia, a lung infection.

Pneumonia can range from a minor condition that can be treated at home to a serious infection that needs intensive care.

The symptoms of pneumonia include:

  • A feeling of being very unwell (which can come on fast)
  • A cough (though the cough with pneumonia can be similar to one from bronchitis)
  • Phlegm production that is rust-colored or contains blood
  • High fever and chills
  • Shortness of breath
  • Chest pain
  • Fast respiratory rate
  • Fast pulse

Some of the most common risk factors for lung infections include:

  • Smoking or exposure to secondhand smoke
  • Exposure to air pollution or dust at work
  • A history of asthma or allergies
  • Crowded living conditions
  • Winter months in the northern hemisphere
  • Dry mucous membranes
  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
  • Anatomical differences in the face, head, neck, or airways (e.g., nasal polyps or a deviated septum)
  • Lower socioeconomic status
  • Malnutrition
  • Not being vaccinated (e.g., pneumococcal vaccines in children or the pneumonia shot in eligible adults)

Lung Infection Treatment

The course of treatment for a lung infection relies on the underlying cause, the severity of the patient’s illness, and any other medical conditions.

Antibiotics can be used to treat viral lung infections, but bacterial lung infections must “run their course.” But if they exhibit severe symptoms, persons with lung infections from any source can require medical attention.

For instance, those who have narrowing of the airways as a result of a lung infection (reactive airway disease) may require corticosteroids to treat inflammation as well as inhalers that open the airways.

People who experience low oxygen levels (hypoxia) as a result of a lung infection may require oxygen therapy, and in extreme circumstances, breathing assistance such as assisted breathing or mechanical ventilation may be required.

Here are a few instances of various viral lung infections that could be treated:

If Tamiflu (oseltamivir), a medication for influenza A, is started as soon as possible, it may lessen the severity and duration of the infection.

A monoclonal antibody therapy may be used to treat children with bronchiolitis caused by RSV who are at very high risk.

Different COVID-19 treatments are being tried but we’re still learning about which ones help and which ones do not. If your provider thinks you are at risk for complications, they might want you to take antiviral medications.

The mainstay of treatment for bacterial lung infections is antibiotics. Which bacterium is responsible for the infection will determine which antibiotic is taken.

In some circumstances, a healthcare professional may decide to begin antibiotics while they wait for test results. They may switch the antibiotic once they have identified the bacterium that is causing the infection.

Depending on how ill a person is, they may be able to consume the medication orally (oral antibiotics) or may require an IV to administer it to them.

Furthermore, time is crucial. Antibiotics, for instance, must be started as soon as possible in the case of pneumonia.

Lung Infections Caused by Fungi and Parasites

Fungal lung infections are treated with anti-fungal drugs including Ancobon (flucytosine), Nizoral (ketoconazole), and Diflucan (fluconazole).

Anti-parasitic drugs are used to treat parasitic lung infections. Depending on the parasite that is infecting you, you’ll need to take a particular treatment. 

Complications of Lung Infection

By itself, a lung infection can be a dangerous condition, but it can also trigger other health issues, some of which can also be life-threatening. Acute lung infection problems might occur right once after becoming ill or they can develop over time (chronic).


Breathing issues are among the worst effects of lung infections. Patients with asthma, for instance, may experience an asthma attack in response to viral lung infections.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) sufferers who have lung infections may experience exacerbations, which may aggravate their illness.


When a person recovers from a lung infection, some side symptoms linger. For instance, infants and children who have bronchiolitis are more likely to develop wheezing and asthma later in childhood.

The possibility that viral lung infections could increase a person’s risk of developing COPD is also a cause for concern.

When to Seek Medical Care for a Lung Infection

If you have a lung infection, certain signs and symptoms mean you need medical care by lungs specialist doctor

  • High fever (over 100.5 to 101 degrees F)
  • Symptoms that do not start getting better after two weeks (though a cough can sometimes last longer)
  • Coughing up blood or rust-colored sputum
  • Shortness of breath (especially at rest)
  • Chest pain (other than a mild ache from coughing)
  • Rapid respiratory rate
  • Fast pulse (a heart rate greater than 100 beats per minute) or palpitations
  • Lightheadedness
  • Confusion or falls (in older adults)
  • Poor feeding or lethargy (infants)
  • Signs of dehydration such as thirst, and few wet diapers, and failure to cry tears in infants
  • Nausea and vomiting


Note: Do not consider JC SURI Blogs as medical advice. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified healthcare providers because of something you have read on JC Suri. You should always speak with your doctor before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your care plan or treatment. If you think you may have a medical emergency, call your doctor immediately.



Cystic fibrosis

Cystic Fibrosis (CF): Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis & Treatment

Cystic Fibrosis: The Facts You Need to Know

The lungs, digestive system, and other body organs are severely harmed by the genetic condition known as cystic fibrosis (CF).

Cystic fibrosis affects the cells that create mucus, sweat, and digestive secretions. These generated fluids are often thin and slippery. The secretions are thick and sticky in CF patients, though, due to a defective gene.

Particularly in the pancreas and lungs, the secretions obstruct the tubes, ducts, and channels instead of lubricating them.

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a hereditary condition that you acquire from your parents at birth. It affects how your body makes mucus, a liquid that helps your organs and systems function.

When you have CF, your mucus is thick and glue-like rather than the normally thin and smooth consistency. Your body’s ducts and tubes become blocked as a result.

Additionally, it can result in serious lung damage such as fibrosis and cysts (fluid-filled sacs) (scar tissue). CF gained its name in this manner.

Cystic Fibrosis Symptoms

Depending on how severe the condition is, there are different suggestions and symptoms of cystic fibrosis. As time goes on, symptoms can get better or get worse, indeed in the same person.

Some people might not start showing symptoms until they’re teenagers or grown-ups. Adult cases are generally diagnosed with milder ails and are more prone to experience atypical symptoms, similar to intermittent pneumonia, infertility, and pancreatitis flare-ups.

  • The trouble with bowel movements or frequent, slithery stools
  • Gasping or having trouble breathing
  • Frequent lung infections
  • Infertility, especially in men
  • Trouble growing or gaining weight
  • Skin that tastes very salty

Cystic Fibrosis Causes

Cystic fibrosis is brought on by a mutation in the CFTR gene( cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator).

This gene regulates the movement of fluids and salt into and out of your cells. Sticky mucus accumulates in your body if the CFTR gene does not serve as it should.

You must inherit the gene with the mutation from both of your parents to develop CF. Ninety percent of persons who are affected have the F508del mutation in at least one copy.

If you have just one copy, you won’t show any signs of the illness, but you will be a carrier anyway. Therefore, there is a possibility that you will pass it on to your offspring.

Cystic Fibrosis Diagnosis

Early diagnosis means early treatment and better health later in life. Every state in the U.S. tests newborns for cystic fibrosis using one or more of these three tests:

Blood test- This test checks the levels of immunoreactive trypsinogen (IRT). People with CF have higher levels of it in their blood.
DNA test- This looks for mutations in the CFTR gene.
Sweat test- It measures the salt in your sweat. Higher than normal results suggest CF.

Cystic Fibrosis Treatment

There’s no cure for cystic fibrosis, but medications and other therapies can ease symptoms.

Medications- Your doctor may give you drugs to open your airways, thin mucus, prevent infections, and help your body get nutrients from food. These include:

Antibiotics- They can prevent or treat lung infections and help your lungs work better. You might get them as pills, in an inhaler, or a shot.

Anti-inflammatory medicines- These include ibuprofen and corticosteroids.

Bronchodilators-  You’ll get these from an inhaler. They’ll relax and open your airways.

Mucus thinners- They’ll help you get the gunk out of your airways. You’ll get them from an inhaler.

CFTR modulators- These help CFTR work as it should. They can make your lungs work better and help you gain weight.

Combination therapy- The new medication elexacaftor/ivacaftor/tezacaftor (Trikafta) combines three CFTR modulators to target the CFTR protein and make it work efficiently.

Airway clearance techniques- These can help get rid of mucus. You might try:

Chest therapy or percussion- This involves tapping or clapping on your chest or back to clear mucus from your lungs. Someone else does this for you.

Oscillating devices- You inhale into a unique machine that vibrates or oscillates your airways. Mucus is loosened as a result, making coughing easier. An oscillating chest vest is an alternative.

Physical therapy for CF- This involves breathing techniques that force air through thick layers of mucus and against your chest wall. They facilitate clearing obstructed airways and make it simpler to cough up debris. Common exercises consist of:

Autogenic drainage- To accomplish this, you exhale forcefully, or huff. This facilitates the passage of mucus from your smaller to central airways and facilitates its removal.

Active cycle of breathing This controls your breath and relaxes the upper chest and shoulders, which can help clear mucus and prevent airway blockages. You breathe in deeply, hold it, and then huff for different lengths of time.

Cystic Fibrosis Complications

The lungs aren’t the only part of your body CF damages. Cystic fibrosis also affects the following organs:

Pancreas- Your pancreas’ ducts are blocked by the thick mucus brought on by CF. This prevents digestive enzymes, which are proteins that help break down food, from getting to your intestine. Your body thus struggles to obtain the nutrition it requires. Diabetes may develop as a result of this over time.

Liver- Your liver becomes inflamed if the channels used to drain bile get blocked. This may result in cirrhosis, a severe scarring condition.

Small intestine- The lining of the small intestine can deteriorate because high-acid foods from your stomach can be challenging to digest.

Large intestine- The thick fluid in your stomach can make your poop large and harder to pass. This can lead to blockages. In some cases, your intestine may also start to fold in on itself like an accordion, a condition called intussusception.

Bladder- Chronic or long-lasting coughing weakens your bladder muscles. Almost 65% of women with CF have stress incontinence. This means that you leak a little pee when you cough, sneeze, laugh or lift something. Though it’s more common in women, men can have it, too.

Kidneys- Some people with CF get kidney stones. These small, hard globs of minerals can cause nausea, vomiting, and pain. If you don’t treat them, you could get a kidney infection.

Reproductive organs- Both male and female fertility is impacted by excess mucus. Most CF sufferers have issues with the vasa deferentia, which transport sperm. Due to their extremely thick cervical mucus, women with CF may have trouble getting sperm to fertilize eggs.

Other parts of the body- Additionally, osteoporosis and muscle weakness are side effects of CF. Low blood pressure, weariness, a rapid heartbeat, and a general sensation of weakness can also result from it because it throws off the balance of minerals in your blood.

Read more “Cystic Fibrosis (CF): Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis & Treatment”