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Lung Infection: Types, Symptoms & Treatment

What Is a Lung Infection?

When a virus or bacteria that causes illness damages and inflames the lungs, it is known as a lung infection. This occurs as immune cells surge to the lungs’ airways or lung tissue to battle the infection.

Viral, bacterial, fungal, parasitic, or fungal infections of the lungs are possible. Sometimes, lung infections are brought on by multiple types of microbes. For example, bacterial pneumonia might result from viral bronchitis.

Lung infections can range from minor to serious. Lung infections can affect anyone at any age, but some forms are more prevalent in particular age groups. Lung infections may develop in the tissues that surround the lungs or in various areas of the airways (such as the bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli).

Common Lung Infection Symptoms

Any kind of lung infection, no matter what the origin, usually results in a specific set of symptoms. The following are a few of the most typical signs of a lung infection:

Cough: Can be light or severe; can be dry (nonproductive—does not produce mucus) or “wet” (productive).

Mucus production: Mucus can be colorless or have an unpleasant odor, and it can also be transparent, yellow, green, brown, or rust-colored.

Wheezing: Wheezing both during exhalation and occasionally during inhalation. When breathing in, a distinct sound called stridor, which is louder than wheezing, could occur. Infections of the airways above the lungs, such as those of the windpipe, can cause stridor (trachea).

Fever: A temperature that is high, very high, or low grade (less than 100 degrees F).

Rigors (shaking chills) or chills: Rigors (shaking chills) might appear as a fever rises, while sweats (which can be drenching) can occasionally appear as the fever falls.  

Upper respiratory symptoms: Headaches, laryngitis, hoarseness, nasal congestion, and sore throat are frequent, especially with viral infections.

Lung infection symptoms

Other possible symptoms of a lung infection include:

  • Muscle aches (myalgia)
  • Joint aches (arthralgia)
  • Loss of appetite
  • Fatigue
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Diarrhea

Types of Lung Infections 

Depending on how they impact the lungs and airways, distinct types of lung infections can be identified.

There can be overlap between some organisms that are more likely to cause one sort of lung infection than another. For instance, some viruses can lead to pneumonia and bronchitis.


An infection of the major airways (bronchi) that connect the trachea to the smaller airways is known as bronchitis.

A viral infection is the most frequent cause of bronchitis. Bacterial infections are to contribute 1% to 10% of cases.


The smaller airways (bronchioles) between the larger bronchi and the tiny alveoli, where oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange takes place, become infected and are known as bronchiolitis.

Children under the age of two frequently develop bronchiolitis, which is also the main reason for newborn hospitalizations in the first year of life. Despite this, most kids who contract it don’t need to be hospitalized.

Children with bronchiolitis may experience recurring wheezing or asthma throughout childhood and even into adulthood after they have recovered.

Common Cold

Children lose 60% to 80% of school, and adults lose 30% to 50% of their workdays due to the common cold.

Children experience six to eight colds on average every year throughout the first six years of life. The average healthy adult has three to four colds a year.


A group of typical viruses that can cause lung infections are called non-polio enteroviruses. They can cause severe infections in other sections of the body, such as encephalitis, myocarditis, and meningitis, which all cause inflammation of the protective layer around the brain. They also cause hand, foot, and mouth disease (enterovirus A71) (brain infection or inflammation).

Enterovirus-induced lung infections sometimes begin with cold-like symptoms such as a fever, runny nose, body aches, and occasionally a rash.


Although it can sometimes damage the bronchi, croup mostly affects the structures above the lungs (the larynx and trachea).

Croup is typically brought on by viruses, such as Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) and common cold viruses, but it can also be brought on by a bacterial infection.

A low-grade fever and runny nose are frequent croup symptoms before the distinctive barking cough that worsens at night.


The flu, often known as seasonal influenza, is one of the most typical lung infections. When a person coughs, sneezes, or simply chats, droplets that are released from their bodies are able to spread the influenza A and influenza B viruses. The flu is particularly contagious because of this.

Symptoms of the flu include:

  • Fever and chills
  • Sore throat
  • Nasal congestion or a runny nose
  • Body aches
  • Headaches
  • Fatigue
  • A mild cough

Whooping Cough (Pertussis)

Despite the misconception that whooping cough (pertussis) is a lung infection that can now be avoided with a vaccine, people still contract it.

Although whooping cough can cause mild to severe disease, it primarily affects babies and young children; about 50% of infants with whooping cough under the age of 12 months require hospitalization.

Pneumonia develops in about one-fourth of infants and young children who acquire whooping cough. Encephalitis is a less frequent (0.3%) consequence of whooping cough. 


Tuberculosis (TB) is a lung infection that is more common in developing regions of the world. It is caused by a bacteria called Mycobacteria tuberculosis.


The smallest of airways (alveoli), where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide occurs, are affected by pneumonia, a lung infection.

Pneumonia can range from a minor condition that can be treated at home to a serious infection that needs intensive care.

The symptoms of pneumonia include:

  • A feeling of being very unwell (which can come on fast)
  • A cough (though the cough with pneumonia can be similar to one from bronchitis)
  • Phlegm production that is rust-colored or contains blood
  • High fever and chills
  • Shortness of breath
  • Chest pain
  • Fast respiratory rate
  • Fast pulse

Some of the most common risk factors for lung infections include:

  • Smoking or exposure to secondhand smoke
  • Exposure to air pollution or dust at work
  • A history of asthma or allergies
  • Crowded living conditions
  • Winter months in the northern hemisphere
  • Dry mucous membranes
  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
  • Anatomical differences in the face, head, neck, or airways (e.g., nasal polyps or a deviated septum)
  • Lower socioeconomic status
  • Malnutrition
  • Not being vaccinated (e.g., pneumococcal vaccines in children or the pneumonia shot in eligible adults)

Lung Infection Treatment

The course of treatment for a lung infection relies on the underlying cause, the severity of the patient’s illness, and any other medical conditions.

Antibiotics can be used to treat viral lung infections, but bacterial lung infections must “run their course.” But if they exhibit severe symptoms, persons with lung infections from any source can require medical attention.

For instance, those who have narrowing of the airways as a result of a lung infection (reactive airway disease) may require corticosteroids to treat inflammation as well as inhalers that open the airways.

People who experience low oxygen levels (hypoxia) as a result of a lung infection may require oxygen therapy, and in extreme circumstances, breathing assistance such as assisted breathing or mechanical ventilation may be required.

Here are a few instances of various viral lung infections that could be treated:

If Tamiflu (oseltamivir), a medication for influenza A, is started as soon as possible, it may lessen the severity and duration of the infection.

A monoclonal antibody therapy may be used to treat children with bronchiolitis caused by RSV who are at very high risk.

Different COVID-19 treatments are being tried but we’re still learning about which ones help and which ones do not. If your provider thinks you are at risk for complications, they might want you to take antiviral medications.

The mainstay of treatment for bacterial lung infections is antibiotics. Which bacterium is responsible for the infection will determine which antibiotic is taken.

In some circumstances, a healthcare professional may decide to begin antibiotics while they wait for test results. They may switch the antibiotic once they have identified the bacterium that is causing the infection.

Depending on how ill a person is, they may be able to consume the medication orally (oral antibiotics) or may require an IV to administer it to them.

Furthermore, time is crucial. Antibiotics, for instance, must be started as soon as possible in the case of pneumonia.

Lung Infections Caused by Fungi and Parasites

Fungal lung infections are treated with anti-fungal drugs including Ancobon (flucytosine), Nizoral (ketoconazole), and Diflucan (fluconazole).

Anti-parasitic drugs are used to treat parasitic lung infections. Depending on the parasite that is infecting you, you’ll need to take a particular treatment. 

Complications of Lung Infection

By itself, a lung infection can be a dangerous condition, but it can also trigger other health issues, some of which can also be life-threatening. Acute lung infection problems might occur right once after becoming ill or they can develop over time (chronic).


Breathing issues are among the worst effects of lung infections. Patients with asthma, for instance, may experience an asthma attack in response to viral lung infections.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) sufferers who have lung infections may experience exacerbations, which may aggravate their illness.


When a person recovers from a lung infection, some side symptoms linger. For instance, infants and children who have bronchiolitis are more likely to develop wheezing and asthma later in childhood.

The possibility that viral lung infections could increase a person’s risk of developing COPD is also a cause for concern.

When to Seek Medical Care for a Lung Infection

If you have a lung infection, certain signs and symptoms mean you need medical care by lungs specialist doctor

  • High fever (over 100.5 to 101 degrees F)
  • Symptoms that do not start getting better after two weeks (though a cough can sometimes last longer)
  • Coughing up blood or rust-colored sputum
  • Shortness of breath (especially at rest)
  • Chest pain (other than a mild ache from coughing)
  • Rapid respiratory rate
  • Fast pulse (a heart rate greater than 100 beats per minute) or palpitations
  • Lightheadedness
  • Confusion or falls (in older adults)
  • Poor feeding or lethargy (infants)
  • Signs of dehydration such as thirst, and few wet diapers, and failure to cry tears in infants
  • Nausea and vomiting


Note: Do not consider JC SURI Blogs as medical advice. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified healthcare providers because of something you have read on JC Suri. You should always speak with your doctor before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your care plan or treatment. If you think you may have a medical emergency, call your doctor immediately.



Cystic fibrosis

Cystic Fibrosis (CF): Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis & Treatment

Cystic Fibrosis: The Facts You Need to Know

The lungs, digestive system, and other body organs are severely harmed by the genetic condition known as cystic fibrosis (CF).

Cystic fibrosis affects the cells that create mucus, sweat, and digestive secretions. These generated fluids are often thin and slippery. The secretions are thick and sticky in CF patients, though, due to a defective gene.

Particularly in the pancreas and lungs, the secretions obstruct the tubes, ducts, and channels instead of lubricating them.

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a hereditary condition that you acquire from your parents at birth. It affects how your body makes mucus, a liquid that helps your organs and systems function.

When you have CF, your mucus is thick and glue-like rather than the normally thin and smooth consistency. Your body’s ducts and tubes become blocked as a result.

Additionally, it can result in serious lung damage such as fibrosis and cysts (fluid-filled sacs) (scar tissue). CF gained its name in this manner.

Cystic Fibrosis Symptoms

Depending on how severe the condition is, there are different suggestions and symptoms of cystic fibrosis. As time goes on, symptoms can get better or get worse, indeed in the same person.

Some people might not start showing symptoms until they’re teenagers or grown-ups. Adult cases are generally diagnosed with milder ails and are more prone to experience atypical symptoms, similar to intermittent pneumonia, infertility, and pancreatitis flare-ups.

  • The trouble with bowel movements or frequent, slithery stools
  • Gasping or having trouble breathing
  • Frequent lung infections
  • Infertility, especially in men
  • Trouble growing or gaining weight
  • Skin that tastes very salty

Cystic Fibrosis Causes

Cystic fibrosis is brought on by a mutation in the CFTR gene( cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator).

This gene regulates the movement of fluids and salt into and out of your cells. Sticky mucus accumulates in your body if the CFTR gene does not serve as it should.

You must inherit the gene with the mutation from both of your parents to develop CF. Ninety percent of persons who are affected have the F508del mutation in at least one copy.

If you have just one copy, you won’t show any signs of the illness, but you will be a carrier anyway. Therefore, there is a possibility that you will pass it on to your offspring.

Cystic Fibrosis Diagnosis

Early diagnosis means early treatment and better health later in life. Every state in the U.S. tests newborns for cystic fibrosis using one or more of these three tests:

Blood test- This test checks the levels of immunoreactive trypsinogen (IRT). People with CF have higher levels of it in their blood.
DNA test- This looks for mutations in the CFTR gene.
Sweat test- It measures the salt in your sweat. Higher than normal results suggest CF.

Cystic Fibrosis Treatment

There’s no cure for cystic fibrosis, but medications and other therapies can ease symptoms.

Medications- Your doctor may give you drugs to open your airways, thin mucus, prevent infections, and help your body get nutrients from food. These include:

Antibiotics- They can prevent or treat lung infections and help your lungs work better. You might get them as pills, in an inhaler, or a shot.

Anti-inflammatory medicines- These include ibuprofen and corticosteroids.

Bronchodilators-  You’ll get these from an inhaler. They’ll relax and open your airways.

Mucus thinners- They’ll help you get the gunk out of your airways. You’ll get them from an inhaler.

CFTR modulators- These help CFTR work as it should. They can make your lungs work better and help you gain weight.

Combination therapy- The new medication elexacaftor/ivacaftor/tezacaftor (Trikafta) combines three CFTR modulators to target the CFTR protein and make it work efficiently.

Airway clearance techniques- These can help get rid of mucus. You might try:

Chest therapy or percussion- This involves tapping or clapping on your chest or back to clear mucus from your lungs. Someone else does this for you.

Oscillating devices- You inhale into a unique machine that vibrates or oscillates your airways. Mucus is loosened as a result, making coughing easier. An oscillating chest vest is an alternative.

Physical therapy for CF- This involves breathing techniques that force air through thick layers of mucus and against your chest wall. They facilitate clearing obstructed airways and make it simpler to cough up debris. Common exercises consist of:

Autogenic drainage- To accomplish this, you exhale forcefully, or huff. This facilitates the passage of mucus from your smaller to central airways and facilitates its removal.

Active cycle of breathing This controls your breath and relaxes the upper chest and shoulders, which can help clear mucus and prevent airway blockages. You breathe in deeply, hold it, and then huff for different lengths of time.

Cystic Fibrosis Complications

The lungs aren’t the only part of your body CF damages. Cystic fibrosis also affects the following organs:

Pancreas- Your pancreas’ ducts are blocked by the thick mucus brought on by CF. This prevents digestive enzymes, which are proteins that help break down food, from getting to your intestine. Your body thus struggles to obtain the nutrition it requires. Diabetes may develop as a result of this over time.

Liver- Your liver becomes inflamed if the channels used to drain bile get blocked. This may result in cirrhosis, a severe scarring condition.

Small intestine- The lining of the small intestine can deteriorate because high-acid foods from your stomach can be challenging to digest.

Large intestine- The thick fluid in your stomach can make your poop large and harder to pass. This can lead to blockages. In some cases, your intestine may also start to fold in on itself like an accordion, a condition called intussusception.

Bladder- Chronic or long-lasting coughing weakens your bladder muscles. Almost 65% of women with CF have stress incontinence. This means that you leak a little pee when you cough, sneeze, laugh or lift something. Though it’s more common in women, men can have it, too.

Kidneys- Some people with CF get kidney stones. These small, hard globs of minerals can cause nausea, vomiting, and pain. If you don’t treat them, you could get a kidney infection.

Reproductive organs- Both male and female fertility is impacted by excess mucus. Most CF sufferers have issues with the vasa deferentia, which transport sperm. Due to their extremely thick cervical mucus, women with CF may have trouble getting sperm to fertilize eggs.

Other parts of the body- Additionally, osteoporosis and muscle weakness are side effects of CF. Low blood pressure, weariness, a rapid heartbeat, and a general sensation of weakness can also result from it because it throws off the balance of minerals in your blood.

Read more “Cystic Fibrosis (CF): Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis & Treatment”


Influenza/Flu: Symptoms, Causes and Complications

Influenza in India can be Dangerous

Dr. JC Suri talks about, Complete awareness of Influenza/Flu, Its Symptoms as well as Cure

A viral infection known as influenza/flu affects your respiratory system, including your nose, throat, and lungs.

Although influenza is frequently referred to as the flu, it differs from stomach “flu” viruses that cause vomiting and diarrhea.

The influenza virus, which causes the flu, is a common respiratory ailment that can occasionally spread to the lungs as well as the nose and throat.

Mild to severe illness and occasionally even death might result from it. Getting vaccinated annually is the greatest way to prevent the flu.

influenza flu

Causes of Influenza/flu

Droplets of influenza viruses are released into the air when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or speaks. You can either directly inhale the droplets or take up the bacteria from a surface, such as a phone or a computer keyboard, and then transmit it to your eyes, nose, or mouth.

People who have the virus are most likely contagious from a day or so before symptoms emerge to a week or so after they do. Children and those with compromised immune systems may spread germs for a little while longer.

New strains of influenza viruses frequently emerge as a result of ongoing evolution. Your body has already produced antibodies to combat that particular strain of the virus if you’ve previously experienced influenza.

If future influenza viruses are similar to those you’ve encountered before, either by having the disease or by getting vaccinated, those antibodies may prevent infection or lessen its severity. But antibody levels may decline over time.

Also, antibodies against influenza viruses you’ve encountered in the past may not protect you from new influenza strains that can be very different viruses from what you had before.

Influenza/Flu Symptoms

Influenza (flu) can cause mild to severe illness, and at times can lead to death. Flu is different from a cold. Flu usually comes on suddenly. People who have flu often feel some or all of these symptoms:

  • Fever or feeling feverish
  • Cough
  • Tiredness
  • Sore throat
  • Runny or stuffy nose
  • Muscle or body aches
  • Headaches
  • Fatigue

Some people may have vomiting and diarrhea, though this is more common in children than adults. For most people, the flu resolves on its own. But sometimes, influenza and its complications can be deadly.

People at higher risk of developing flu complications include:

  • Young children under age 5, and especially those under 6 months.
  • Adults older than age 65
  • Residents of nursing homes and other long-term care facilities.
  • Pregnant women and women up to two weeks after giving birth.
  • People with weakened immune systems.
  • Native Americans
  • People who have chronic illnesses, such as asthma, heart disease, kidney disease, liver disease, and diabetes.
  • People who are very obese, with a body mass index (BMI) of 40 or higher.

When to see a doctor

Most people who get the flu can treat themselves at home and often don’t need to see a Lungs doctor.
If you have flu symptoms and are at risk of complications, see your doctor right away. Taking antiviral drugs may reduce the length of your illness and help prevent more serious problems.

If you have emergency signs and symptoms of the flu, get medical care right away. For adults, emergency signs and symptoms can include:

  • Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath
  • Chest pain
  • Ongoing dizziness
  • Seizures
  • Worsening of existing medical conditions
  • Severe weakness or muscle pain

5 Risk factors of Influenza

  1. Age: Seasonal influenza tends to target children 6 months to 5 years old, and adults 65 years old or older.
  2. Living or working conditions: People who live or work in facilities with many other residents, such as nursing homes or military barracks, are more likely to develop the flu. People who are staying in the hospital also are at higher risk.
  3. Weakened immune system: Cancer treatments, anti-rejection drugs, long-term use of steroids, organ transplants, blood cancer, or HIV/AIDS can weaken the immune system. This can make it easier to catch the flu and may also increase the risk of developing complications.
  4. Chronic illnesses: Chronic conditions, including lung diseases such as asthma, diabetes, heart disease, nervous system diseases, metabolic disorders, airway abnormality, and kidney, liver, or blood disease, may increase the risk of influenza complications.
  5. Obesity: People with a body mass index (BMI) of 40 or more have an increased risk of flu complications.


What are the complication that can occur, if you are suffering with influenza flu?

If you’re young and healthy, the flu usually isn’t serious. Although you may feel miserable while you have it, the flu usually goes away in a week or two with no lasting effects. But children and adults at high risk may develop complications that may include:

  • Pneumonia
  • Bronchitis
  • Asthma flare-ups
  • Heart problems
  • Ear infections
  • Acute respiratory distress syndrome


The National Center for Disease Control (NCDC) recommends annual flu vaccination for everyone age 6 months or older. The flu vaccine can reduce your risk of the flu and its severity and lower the risk of having serious illness from the flu and needing to stay in the hospital.

Note: Do not consider JC SURI Blogs as medical advice. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified healthcare providers because of something you have read on JC Suri. You should always speak with your doctor before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your care plan or treatment. If you think you may have a medical emergency, call your doctor immediately.

MONSOON diseases and prevention


Be cautious this monsoon

The monsoon has begun. We frequently forget some of the dangers involved with this great season, dangers that can create a wide range of health issues for us and our loved ones, as we celebrate by splashing and leaping into puddles.
The danger of illness is greater during the monsoon than during any other time of year because the high air moisture content is favorable for the growth of bacteria and viruses. Let’s examine the dangers we face throughout this season and how we can be safe.

Monsoon diseases have 3 mediums of transmission:


Rainwater is the purest form of water but due to pollutants, it picks up from the atmosphere, and the unhygienic methods used to store and distribute it makes it unsuitable. Therefore, exposure to such water places us at the risk of contracting diseases like:
⦁ Typhoid
⦁ Jaundice
⦁ Hepatitis A
⦁ Cholera


The majority of contagious diseases are spread through the air. Overly damp air during the monsoons may promote bacterial and fungal growth, leading to a variety of skin and hair problems. Infections that can be spread through microscopic germs through the air during the monsoon include:
⦁ Common Cold
⦁ Influenza


The monsoon season brings heavy rains that can cause stagnant water to build up and serve as the ideal mosquito breeding environment. In consequence, this promotes the spread of illnesses like:
⦁ Dengue
⦁ Malaria
⦁ Chikungunya

MONSOON diseases and prevention

Common diseases and prevention-

Influenza (Cold and Flu):

The common cold is one of the most commonly occurring health sicknesses during the monsoon season in India. It is a highly contagious disease due to the spread of the virus in the air which infects the upper respiratory tract and thus affects the nose and the throat.

Symptoms involve

Runny or stuffy nose, body ache, throat irritation, soreness, and fever. It is always advisable to consult a physician and get the required
The best way to prevent the common cold is to have a healthy, balanced, and nutritious diet regular which will develop the immune system of the body and improves the body’s resistance.


“Cholera” is another caused by bacteria that are most prevalent and devastating during the monsoon. This illness is brought on by tainted food, water, and unsanitary living circumstances. Severe diarrhea with watery stools, or “rice-water stools,” and vomiting, which results in an instant loss of fluids and muscle cramping, are common cholera symptoms. Diarrhea that is this bad can quickly cause electrolyte imbalance and serious dehydration.


Another waterborne bacterial infection called “typhoid” is brought on by the Salmonella bacteria. Typhoid causes gut ulcers, which induce fever. This illness is brought on by eating or drinking food or water that has been tainted with an infected person’s feces. The Widal test and any stool, bone marrow, or blood cultures are used to diagnose patients.
Yes, it would be sensible to avoid the most terrifying rainy season infections by avoiding horrifyingly unclean roadside cafes.
Long-lasting high fever, excruciating abdominal pain, and headaches are all signs of the illness. Vomiting is also a frequent symptom. The worst aspect is that, even after a patient is cured, the disease’s infection may still be present in the gall bladder.
Preventive measures include providing clean drinking water, better sanitation, and better hand washing.
Highly infectious & communicable disease that spreads through contaminated food and water during the monsoon season. Poor hygiene and sanitation is the main cause of Typhoid Fever. Common symptoms are fever, headache, sore throat & abdominal pain.

Hepatitis A:

The hepatitis A virus, which causes hepatitis A, is a highly contagious liver ailment. It is a waterborne viral infection that is typically brought on by eating or drinking food that has been infected by the virus, which can also be transferred by flies. Consuming produce or other foods that have been contaminated during handling can transmit an infection. The virus-induced liver inflammation that is a direct result of this disease is a symptom.
Symptoms include jaundice (yellow eyes and skin, dark urine), stomach pain, loss of appetite, Nausea, Fever, Diarrhoea, and Fatigue.
Blood tests are used to detect the presence of hepatitis A in your body.
Practicing good hygiene, including washing hands frequently, is one of the best ways to protect against hepatitis A


Dengue fever is a disease caused by a family of viruses that are transmitted by mosquitoes. It is spread by what’s known as the tiger mosquito (Aedes Aegypti), which has black and white stripes and typically bites early in the morning or at dawn. Dengue goes by other names, including “break-bone fever.
Symptoms of dengue fever include severe joint and muscle pain, swollen lymph nodes, headache, fever, exhaustion, and rash.
A complication of dengue fever is called Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). It is a specific syndrome that tends to affect children under 10 years of age. This complication of dengue causes abdominal pain, hemorrhage (bleeding), and circulatory collapse (shock).
There are no specific antibiotics or antiviral medications to treat it. For typical dengue, the treatment is concerned with the relief of the symptoms and signs.
It is a mosquito-borne disease; symptoms include high-grade fever, rash & headache. The control measure of Dengue Fever requires the elimination of mosquito breeding places. The tests which can be done are CBC, Dengue NS1 Antigen, and Dengue IgM.

Preventive measures

-As it’s transmitted via mosquitoes, one should wear a strong insect repellent containing DEET to prevent getting bitten.
-People should also wear full sleeve clothing when out during the day.
– It is important to remember that the dengue mosquito usually bites only in the daytime and breeds in clean, fresh water. So any water accumulation should be avoided.


Malaria is one of the most prevalent illnesses linked to the monsoon and is brought on by certain mosquito species that breed in contaminated water. During the rainy season, there is an issue with waterlogging, which creates ideal conditions for mosquito breeding. The female Anopheles mosquito is the carrier of this disease. Most deaths are caused by P. falciparum, the most dangerous type of malaria known as cerebral malaria. Other forms of malaria are P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malaria
Malaria is typically diagnosed by the microscopic examination of blood using blood films, or with antigen-based rapid diagnostic tests.
It is characterized by fever, body ache, chills, and sweating. If untreated, it can lead to complications like jaundice, severe anemia, or even liver and kidney failure. Malaria is treated with antimalarial medications successfully.
Maximum cases of Malarial Fever are seen in monsoons. Mosquitoes are responsible for transmission. Rain provides opportunities for the breeding of mosquitoes in water-logged areas. Symptoms range from mild to severe, like fever with chills, headache, jaundice, severe exhaustion, and fluctuating state of consciousness. The tests which can be done are Malarial Parasite (MP) Smear and Malarial Parasite (MP) Antigen.

Preventive measures –
⦁ Take an antimalarial drug as a precautionary measure in mosquito-prone areas.
⦁ Also, take measures to prevent mosquito bites such as wearing full sleeve clothing.
⦁ Application of anti-repellent mosquito creams and Electronic mosquito repellent devices can be used during the monsoon season to avoid mosquitoes at home.
⦁ Accumulation of dirty water must be kept in check to prevent malaria mosquito breeding.
⦁ Insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) are highly effective in preventing malaria in your neighborhood and can reduce the breeding of mosquitos also.


Viral fever:

Viral refers to any fever brought on by a virus. A viral fever frequently brought on by a sudden change in weather is marked by exhaustion, chills, body pains, and fever. Contagious droplets in the air or direct touch with contaminated secretions are the two main ways the sickness spreads. A viral fever typically lasts 3 to 7 days, with the first three days being the most severe throughout that time.
In general, antihistamines, decongestants, and antipyretic medications are advised for the treatment of side effects and symptoms using over-the-counter medications in conjunction with a doctor. In most cases, viral illnesses are self-limiting and don’t require antibiotics unless secondary infection occurs.

Some Preventive measures –

⦁ One must ensure that they do not get wet in the rain or stay in wet clothes for a long period
⦁ Wash their hands often,
⦁ Boost their immunity by eating Vitamin C-rich foods and green leafy vegetables. They must also keep a distance from an infected person.


During the monsoon season, gastroenteritis and food poisoning are quite prevalent, and excessive humidity encourages the growth of pathogenic germs. In general, gastroenteritis symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and stomach cramps. As the sickness progresses, a fever may appear, and one may experience malaise and weakness.
A bland diet of rice, curds, and fruits like bananas and apples is advised in addition to maintaining constant hydration. Coconut water or rice kanji water are also effective hydration remedies. ORS is typically advised.

Preventive measures:
⦁ Try and avoid eating raw food like salads because it is difficult to ascertain whether they have been washed, cleaned, and stored at the right temperature
⦁ Avoid roadside food which may be made in contaminated water and trigger diarrhea.

Prevention is better than cure:

Some measures to ensure that monsoons become an enjoyable experience without hampering health.
⦁ One must drink only clean water and use boiled water or water purifiers.
⦁ One should change their hand towels after a day’s use.
⦁ One should cover their mouth and nose with a handkerchief while coughing or sneezing.
⦁ Use mosquito repellents and nets (dengue-transmitting mosquitoes usually bite during the daytime; either early morning or late evening).
⦁ One should keep their wet and soggy clothes or shoes away from dry garments.
⦁ Avoid eating out and consume as much fresh food as possible.
⦁ Drink warm water every two hours and carry home-boiled water while traveling.
⦁ Avoid visiting crowded places such as theatres or exhibitions.
⦁ Use hand sanitizers while traveling.
⦁ Cover your nose while traveling on a bike/while seated next to the window in a bus or train.
⦁ Avoid getting wet in the rain.
⦁ To keep in mind: Avoid self-medication

So, here are some things you can do to stay safe in the monsoon:

Because of the unsanitary environment and lack of adherence to fundamental preventive measures, there is a very significant risk of contracting numerous diseases throughout the monsoon season. Many of these monsoon illnesses go undetected until they develop unfavorable side effects. Because of this, early disease detection and treatment during the rainy season might mean the difference between life and death. You should be aware of the following frequent illnesses that are very common during this time of year. It is also advisable to be aware of the steps that you and your family can take to prevent these infections.

⦁ Keep yourself hydrated at all times – ensure you drink only boiled water, and avoid drinking anything outside
⦁ Follow a strict personal hygiene routine at all times to avoid fungal infections
⦁ Wear full-sleeved and light clothes to protect your skin.
⦁ Eat a balanced diet and keep your immune system strong.
⦁ Consume freshly-washed, boiled vegetables, reduce your intake of fats, oils, and sodium, and avoid dairy products as they can contain microorganisms that are harmful to your health.


what is Pulmonary embolism


What is pulmonary embolism?

A pulmonary embolism is a blockage in one of the pulmonary arteries in your lungs. Pulmonary embolism is caused by blood clots that migrate to the lungs from deep veins in the legs or, in rare cases, veins in other sections of the body (deep vein thrombosis).
Because the clots impede blood flow to the lungs, pulmonary embolism is life-threatening. On the other hand, prompt treatment dramatically reduces the risk of death. You can avoid pulmonary embolism by taking care to avoid blood clots in your legs.

 what is Pulmonary embolism


Depending on how much of your lung is affected, the size of the clots, and if you have underlying lung or heart problems, pulmonary embolism symptoms can vary greatly.

The following are some of the most common indications and symptoms:


  • Breathing problems- This ailment usually occurs out of nowhere and worsens with exertion.
  • Chest Pain- You may feel as if you’re experiencing a heart attack. When you take a deep breath, the pain is typically severe and intense, preventing you from taking a deep breath. When you cough, bend, or squat, you can also feel it.
  • Cough- Sputum may be bloody or blood-streaked as a result of the cough.
  • Excessive sweating
  • Fever
  • Dizziness
  • Irregular heartbeats


 what is Pulmonary embolism


Pulmonary embolism occurs when a clump of material, most commonly a blood clot, becomes lodged in an artery in your lungs. DVT (deep vein thrombosis) is a condition in which blood clots form in the legs’ deep veins (DVT).

Pulmonary embolism frequently involves several clots. Each clogged artery robs parts of the lung of oxygen and nutrients, leading them to die. The medical name for this is pulmonary infarction. As a result, your lungs will have a harder time giving oxygen to the rest of your body.

Blood artery blockages can be caused by a variety of factors other than blood clots, including:

  • Fat from a shattered long bone’s marrow
  • A section of a tumor
  • Bubbles of air



  • Smoking– Tobacco smoking predisposes some persons to blood clot formation for unknown reasons.
  • Being overweight is a problem- Blood clots are more likely in people who are overweight.
  • Pregnancy- Blood flow from the legs can be slowed by the weight of the baby pressing on veins in the pelvic. When blood slows or pools, clots are more likely to form.



  • Heart disease- Clot development is more prevalent in those with cardiovascular illness, particularly heart failure.
  • Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)- People who have severe symptoms of COVID-19 have an increased risk of pulmonary embolism.
  • Cancer- Tumors of the brain, ovary, pancreas, colon, stomach, lung, and kidney, as well as cancers that have spread, can increase the risk of blood clots, which is exacerbated by chemotherapy. Women who take tamoxifen or raloxifene and have a personal or family history of breast cancer are at an increased risk of blood clots.
  • Surgery- One of the most common causes of blood clots is surgery. As a result, anticoagulant medicine may be prescribed before and after major surgery, such as joint replacement.




Preventing clots in the deep veins in your legs (deep vein thrombosis) will help prevent pulmonary embolism. For this reason, most hospitals are aggressive about taking measures to prevent blood clots, including:

  • Blood thinners (anticoagulants)- People at risk of clotting, as well as people admitted to the hospital with medical illnesses like heart attack, stroke, or cancer complications, are frequently given these drugs before and after an operation.
  • Compression stockings-  Compression stockings apply constant pressure to your legs, assisting your veins and leg muscles in moving blood more efficiently. They provide a safe, easy, and low-cost method of preventing blood stagnation during and after general surgery.
  • Leg elevation- Elevating your legs as much as possible, especially at night, might be very beneficial. Blocks or books can be used to raise the bottom of your bed 4 to 6 inches (10 to 15 cm).
  • Physical activity- Moving as soon as possible after surgery will help you avoid a pulmonary embolism and speed up your recovery. This is one of the key reasons your nurse may encourage you to get up and move even though you are in pain at the surgical incision site.
  • Pneumatic compression- This therapy uses thigh-high or calf-high cuffs that inflate and deflate automatically every few minutes to massage and constrict your legs’ veins and enhance blood flow.


Chest hurt in the summer

How can hot weather affect my heart?

Chest hurt in the summer: Hot weather means your body has to work harder to keep your core temperature at a normal level, and this puts extra strain on your heart, lungs, and kidneys. This means you may be at higher risk if you have heart disease.

That’s why staying cool and hydrated is especially important.

These risks are higher than normal during the current COVID-19 coronavirus outbreak as the virus also affects the heart, lungs, kidneys, and kidneys. If you’re spending more time at home than usual, it can also mean that it’s hard to stay calm.

If you are currently infected with COVID-19 and have a fever, staying cool can be especially difficult. If you are recovering at home after becoming seriously ill from COVID-19, you may have some organ damage, which means you will be at greater risk from the harmful effects of heat.

If any of these apply to you or a loved one, it is especially important to stay cool and hydrated.

Drinking plenty of fluids will help compensate for the fact that you are sweating more than usual and your blood pressure will stop dropping too high.


Shortness of Breath during Weather Changes

Chest hurt in the summer

What can I do to stay cool?

There are a few simple things you can do to keep cool in hot weather:

  • Stay hydrated by drinking plenty of water or other drinks. Water is best but milk, sports drinks, diluted squash, fruit juice, tea, and coffee are all that matter (though it’s best to drink no more than three to five cups of tea or coffee a day or switch to decaffeinated versions). . For example, if you have been told to restrict your fluid intake because you have heart failure, for example, you should talk to your doctor. Read more about dealing with hot weather when you have fluid restrictions.
  • Avoid drinking too many alcoholic beverages. They can make you more dehydrated.
  • Enjoy cold foods, such as salads and fruits, which are high in water and are good sources of vitamins and minerals.
  • Try to keep your house cool when you are indoors. If you have shutters, cover windows exposed to direct sunlight, or cover them if you don’t have blinds or curtains. If it’s cooler outside than your house, open the windows. Turn off any lights or electrical appliances you don’t need, as they can heat up your home.
  • Spend time in the coldest part of your home, especially for sleeping.
  • Wear light, loose-fitting clothing.
  • Stay out of the sun during the hottest part of the day between 11 am and 3 pm.
  • It can be cooler to go outside, especially if you can spend time in the shade. Apply sunscreen, wear a hat and carry some water with you.
  • Avoid excessive physical exercise.

Chest hurt in the summer

What if I’m feeling sick in the heat?

Chest hurt in the summer: Some symptoms of heat-related illnesses, such as high temperature, headache, loss of appetite, dizziness, or shortness of breath, can be similar to the symptoms of COVID-19. If in doubt, get a covid test done and also take measures to calm down. If you are currently infected with COVID-19 and have a fever, staying cool can be especially difficult. The virus can also affect the heart, lungs, and kidneys, so if you are or have been seriously ill with COVID-19, you may be at greater risk from the harmful effects of heat.

Here are four quick ways to feel better if you’re feeling sick in the heat. They should make you feel better in less than 30 minutes:

  • Go to a cool place
  • Lie down and raise your legs slightly
  • drink plenty of water
  • Cooldown your skin – Spray or sponge with cool water and fan yourself. If that’s an option for you, ask someone else to do it. Cold packs or ice packs around the armpits or neck are also good.

Hot weather and heart conditions ( Chest hurt in the summer )


You should take extra care in hot weather if you use GTN spray to control your angina. GTN Spray can rapidly dilate your blood vessels, causing your blood pressure to drop suddenly and you may faint.

Heart failure

It is especially important to stay calm when you have heart failure – where your heart is not pumping blood around your body as it should. If you’ve been told to restrict your fluid intake, talk to your doctor about other ways to keep cool during the summer. Tell your doctor if you take water pills and feel dizzy or lightheaded. Your medication may be reviewed or adapted as needed.


Losing too much body fluid can raise your internal body temperature, which can be life-threatening if left untreated.

Symptoms of heatstroke include sweating, cold, clammy skin, dizziness, fainting, muscle cramps, heat rash, swollen ankles (swelling), shallow or rapid breathing, nausea, and vomiting.

If you suspect that you or someone else has had heatstroke, seek medical attention immediately.

Who is most at risk?

  • Elderly people and very young children have more difficulty controlling their temperature and therefore may be more at risk from extreme temperatures.
  • Older people, especially if they are over 75, without much social interaction, or living on their own in a care home.
  • People with long-term health conditions, including heart or circulatory conditions, lung conditions, kidney problems, diabetes, and Parkinson’s disease.
  • People who have difficulty escaping the heat or adapting to their behavior, such as those who are bed-bound, have disabilities, have dementia, or who work outside.

Research shows that most people do not see themselves as at risk from hot weather, even when they are. In hot weather, check with your friends and relatives regularly to make sure they are cool and comfortable.

Shortness of Breath

Shortness of Breath during Weather Changes

Shortness of Breath: “How’s the weather today?” This is an oft-repeated question that has major implications for people with lung disease. Whether it’s summer or winter, rainy or windy, people with lung disease should pay attention to weather reports because sudden changes in weather, as well as extreme weather conditions, can provoke lung symptoms.

Hot and Humid Weather

Hot weather can be especially difficult for people with respiratory illnesses. In a 2013 study from Johns Hopkins University, researchers found an association between rising temperatures and the number of emergency hospital admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and respiratory tract infections in people 65 and older.

Although the reason behind this correlation is unclear, breathing hot air is known to promote airway inflammation and exacerbate respiratory disorders such as COPD. Hot weather can also be a trigger for those who suffer from asthma.

Because people with asthma already have inflamed airways, weather is more likely to have an effect, as breathing warm, moist air causes a narrowing of the airways in asthmatics. Air pollution may also be a factor affecting summer breathing in people with lung disease, as an increase in ozone from smog is often seen in the summer months.


Do enthusiastic or mental elements have an influence on asthma?

Shortness of Breath

Cold and Dry Weather

Cold weather, and especially cold air, can also be harmful to your lungs and health. Cold air is often dry air, and for many people, especially those with chronic lung disease, that can cause trouble. Dry air can irritate the airways of people suffering from lung diseases. This can cause wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath.

Be Active and Ready

While you can’t control the weather, you can reduce the impact it has on your lung disease symptoms. Stay ahead of the curve by monitoring the weather forecast and identifying your triggers before you head out. You can comfortably enjoy your favorite outdoor activities all year round by keeping the following tips in mind:

  • If it’s cold outside, wrap a scarf around your nose and mouth to warm the air before it enters your lungs. Breathe in through your nose and out through your mouth.
  • Access to air conditioning can be important during the hot summer months, so add air conditioning to your home if you can.
  • Monitor air quality forecasts to stay healthy. Air pollution can be very high in both winter and summer and people with asthma and other lung diseases are at a higher risk of being affected by air pollution.
  • Remember to take your prescribed controller medications—another important way to reduce the potential impact of changing weather conditions on your health.
  • If you have asthma or COPD, always keep quick-relief medicines with you. Stop the activity and use your quick-relief medicine as soon as you start having symptoms.

To learn more about how to manage COPD or asthma symptoms, Find a Better Breathers Club near you or learn more about how to manage COPD and asthma at the JCS Institute.

Best Tips for Ease of Breathing in Summer

Best Tips for Ease of Breathing in Summer

Breathing in Summer: Most people with chronic lung diseases are aware that an extreme increase in temperature, that is, below freezing or above 90 degrees, can trigger exacerbations. Three factors can affect your ability to breathe in the heat – heat, sunlight, and humidity.

When it is heating up, your body overworks as it tries to stay cool. You sweat more, which can result in dehydration and shortness of breath.

Sunlight causes certain chemical reactions with the pollutants in the air that cause an increase in ozone. This can result in difficulty breathing, a burning sensation in your nose and throat, coughing, and wheezing.


Can winter cause breathing problems?

Best Tips for Ease of Breathing in Summer

Does warm air hold more moisture or cold air?

High humidity levels can make it even more difficult to catch your breath. Warm air contains more moisture than cold air, reducing the amount of oxygen present. As humidity increases, it’s more difficult to breathe denser air if you have chronic lung problems.

It can be frustrating, but there’s a lot you can do to help ease your symptoms during the summer:
  • Avoid heat. Try to stay in an air-conditioned place as much as possible.
  • Stay away from sunlight, especially from 11 am to 3 pm. When it’s hottest.
  • Reduce strenuous activity. That doesn’t mean you can skip your pulmonary rehab, though. Rehab will help even on hot days.
  • Drink cold water and avoid alcohol as it can lead to dehydration.
  • Eat normally, but break up meals into smaller portions, reduce your salt intake, and eat cold foods like fruits and vegetables.
  • Use a handheld fan or a large fan. Do not apply large fans directly to your face as they can be very dusty.
  • Summer is an opportunity to relax, so take it easy—and stay cool when it’s hot and humid!
How to beat seasonal allergies


Summer is lovely, but it’s also  a seasonal allergies season. Millions of hay fever sufferers’ sniffle and sneeze as pollen are released by plants.

There is no cure for summer allergies, but there are things you can do to help, from medication to changing your habits.

Causes of seasonal allergies

Pollen is the most common seasonal allergy cause. To fertilize other plants, trees, grasses, and weeds release these tiny grains into the air. They drive the body’s defenses haywire when they enter into the nose of someone who is allergic to them.
When the immune system misinterprets pollen as a threat, antibodies are released that fight the allergens. Histamines, which are substances, are released into the bloodstream as a result of this.
Pollen has the ability to travel great distances, so it’s not just about the plants in your area.
Trees: Alder, Ash, Aspen Beech, Cottonwood, Oak, Olive, Palm, Pine etc.
Grasses and weeds: Bermuda, Fescue, Johnson, June, Orchard, Perennial rye, etc.

How to beat seasonal allergies


How allergies can affect your child’s skin?
If your child comes in contact with an allergen their skin may appear:
• Red
• Itchy
• Scaly
• Bumpy
• Swollen

They can get hives if they come into contact with, inhale, or consume an allergen. These are itchy, raised welts that might grow on their skin.

Eczema is a skin condition that affects some children who have allergies. Even if they haven’t come into contact with an allergen, their skin becomes inflamed, itchy, and irritated as a result of this ailment.

• Dizziness
• Cramps
• Vomiting
• Diarrhea
• Queasiness
• A tingling sensation in their mouth
• Swelling of their tongue or face

Avoiding allergens is the most efficient strategy to avoid allergic responses. Ask our doctor how they can avoid the allergens and what medications they need.


What is Lung Cancer

What is Lung Cancer ?

Lung Cancer (LC) may be a sort of cancer that starts within the lungs. Cancer starts when cells within the body begin to grow out of control.

Cancer cells develop because of multiple changes in their genes. These changes can have many possible causes.

Lifestyle habits, genes you get from your parents, and being exposed to cancer-causing agents in the environment can all play a role. Many times, there is no obvious cause.

Certain genes control a cell’s life cycle – growth, function, division, and death. When these genes are damaged, the balance between normal cell growth and death is lost.

Cancer cells are caused by DNA damage and out-of-control cell growth.

What is Lung Cancer


SMOKING- Tobacco usage is by far the most common cause of LC. Around 80% of lung cancer fatalities are caused by smoking, and many more are caused by secondhand smoke exposure.

Although smoking is by far the most significant risk factor for LC, it frequently interacts with other factors.

Smokers are at a significantly greater risk, as are those who are exposed to other known risk factors like radon and asbestos. Because not everyone who smokes develops lung cancer, other factors such as genetics are likely to play a role.

CAUSES IN PEOPLE WHO DON’T SMOKE Lung cancer does not affect everyone who smokes. Many patients with lung cancer have smoked in the past, while many others have never smoked.

Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) can be diagnosed in people who have never smoked, but it does happen.

Exposure to radon, secondhand smoking, pollution, and other factors can cause carcinoma in nonsmokers.

Some persons who don’t smoke can develop carcinoma after being exposed to asbestos, diesel exhaust, or other pollutants at work.

A small percentage of lung cancers arise in patients who have no known risk factors. Some of them could just be random events with no external source, while others could be the result of unknown influences.

Lung cancers in nonsmokers are frequently distinct from those that occur in smokers. They grow in younger persons and frequently have gene modifications that differ from those observed in cancers detected in smokers.

These gene variations can be utilized to guide treatment in some circumstances.

GENES CHANGES THAT MAY LEAD TO LUNG CANCER- Scientists have figured out how some lung cancer risk factors can cause DNA mutations in lung cells.

These modifications may result in aberrant cell development and, in some cases, cancer. Our genes, which determine how our cells work, are made from DNA, a cloth found in our cells. Our DNA, which comes from both parents, has an impact on more than simply our appearance.

It can also increase our chances of contracting certain diseases, such as cancer.

Some genes play a role in determining when cells divide, grow, and die:

Oncogenes are genes that help cells grow, proliferate, or survive.

Tumor suppressor genes help control cell division or induce cells to die at the appropriate moment.

DNA alterations that turn on oncogenes or turn off tumor suppressor genes can cause cancer. Lung cancer is frequently caused by changes in many distinct genes.


There are 2 main sorts of lung cancer:

NSCLC accounts for about 80% to 85% of lung cancer cases. Adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and giant cell carcinoma are the three primary subtypes of NSCLC.

Because their therapy and prognoses (outlook) are typically similar, these subtypes, which start from distinct types of lung cells, are classed together as NSCLC.

Adenocarcinoma: Adenocarcinomas begin in cells that ordinarily release mucus or other substances. This type of carcinoma is commonest in those that smoke or have smoked within the past, but it’s also the foremost common sort of carcinoma detected in nonsmokers.

It affects more women than males, and it’s more common in younger individuals than other sorts of carcinoma.
Adenocarcinoma is most commonly detected in the lungs’ outer layers, and it is more likely to be discovered before it has spread.

People with adenocarcinoma in situ (formerly called bronchioloalveolar carcinoma), a kind of adenocarcinoma, have a better prognosis than those with other types of lung cancer.

Squamous cell carcinomas begin in squamous cells, which are flat cells that line the liner of the lungs’ airways. They are usually seen within the middle region of the lungs, near a main airway, and are associated to a history of smoking (bronchus)

Large cell carcinoma, also known as undifferentiated carcinoma, can develop in any area of the lungs. It has a tendency to spread and grow quickly, making treatment more difficult. Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, a subtype of huge cell carcinoma, may be a fast-growing malignancy that’s remarkably almost like small cell carcinoma.

Other subtypes: Adenosquamous carcinoma and sarcomatoid carcinoma are two other NSCLC subtypes that are far less common.


SCLC is a type of lung cancer that accounts for 10% to 15% of all lung malignancies and is also known as oat cell cancer.
This kind of lung cancer grows and spreads more quickly than NSCLC. At the time of diagnosis, almost 70% of those with SCLC will have cancer that has already spread.

Chemotherapy and radiation therapy work well for this cancer because it grows quickly. Unfortunately, the cancer will return for the majority of patients at some point.