JCS Lung & Sleep Centre : A7 Madhuban (Preet Vihar) Vikas Marg New Delhi - 110 092

How to beat seasonal allergies


Summer is lovely, but it’s also  a seasonal allergies season. Millions of hay fever sufferers’ sniffle and sneeze as pollen are released by plants.

There is no cure for summer allergies, but there are things you can do to help, from medication to changing your habits.

Causes of seasonal allergies

Pollen is the most common seasonal allergy cause. To fertilize other plants, trees, grasses, and weeds release these tiny grains into the air. They drive the body’s defenses haywire when they enter into the nose of someone who is allergic to them.
When the immune system misinterprets pollen as a threat, antibodies are released that fight the allergens. Histamines, which are substances, are released into the bloodstream as a result of this.
Pollen has the ability to travel great distances, so it’s not just about the plants in your area.
Trees: Alder, Ash, Aspen Beech, Cottonwood, Oak, Olive, Palm, Pine etc.
Grasses and weeds: Bermuda, Fescue, Johnson, June, Orchard, Perennial rye, etc.

How to beat seasonal allergies


How allergies can affect your child’s skin?
If your child comes in contact with an allergen their skin may appear:
• Red
• Itchy
• Scaly
• Bumpy
• Swollen

They can get hives if they come into contact with, inhale, or consume an allergen. These are itchy, raised welts that might grow on their skin.

Eczema is a skin condition that affects some children who have allergies. Even if they haven’t come into contact with an allergen, their skin becomes inflamed, itchy, and irritated as a result of this ailment.

• Dizziness
• Cramps
• Vomiting
• Diarrhea
• Queasiness
• A tingling sensation in their mouth
• Swelling of their tongue or face

Avoiding allergens is the most efficient strategy to avoid allergic responses. Ask our doctor how they can avoid the allergens and what medications they need.


Lung Cancer

What is Lung Cancer ?

Lung Cancer (LC) may be a sort of cancer that starts within the lungs. Cancer starts when cells within the body begin to grow out of control.

Cancer cells develop because of multiple changes in their genes. These changes can have many possible causes.

Lifestyle habits, genes you get from your parents, and being exposed to cancer-causing agents in the environment can all play a role. Many times, there is no obvious cause.

Certain genes control a cell’s life cycle – growth, function, division, and death. When these genes are damaged, the balance between normal cell growth and death is lost.

Cancer cells are caused by DNA damage and out-of-control cell growth.

What is Lung Cancer


SMOKING- Tobacco usage is by far the most common cause of LC. Around 80% of lung cancer fatalities are caused by smoking, and many more are caused by secondhand smoke exposure.

Although smoking is by far the most significant risk factor for LC, it frequently interacts with other factors.

Smokers are at a significantly greater risk, as are those who are exposed to other known risk factors like radon and asbestos. Because not everyone who smokes develops lung cancer, other factors such as genetics are likely to play a role.

CAUSES IN PEOPLE WHO DON’T SMOKE Lung cancer does not affect everyone who smokes. Many patients with lung cancer have smoked in the past, while many others have never smoked.

Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) can be diagnosed in people who have never smoked, but it does happen.

Exposure to radon, secondhand smoking, pollution, and other factors can cause carcinoma in nonsmokers.

Some persons who don’t smoke can develop carcinoma after being exposed to asbestos, diesel exhaust, or other pollutants at work.

A small percentage of lung cancers arise in patients who have no known risk factors. Some of them could just be random events with no external source, while others could be the result of unknown influences.

Lung cancers in nonsmokers are frequently distinct from those that occur in smokers. They grow in younger persons and frequently have gene modifications that differ from those observed in cancers detected in smokers.

These gene variations can be utilized to guide treatment in some circumstances.

GENES CHANGES THAT MAY LEAD TO LUNG CANCER- Scientists have figured out how some lung cancer risk factors can cause DNA mutations in lung cells.

These modifications may result in aberrant cell development and, in some cases, cancer. Our genes, which determine how our cells work, are made from DNA, a cloth found in our cells. Our DNA, which comes from both parents, has an impact on more than simply our appearance.

It can also increase our chances of contracting certain diseases, such as cancer.

Some genes play a role in determining when cells divide, grow, and die:

Oncogenes are genes that help cells grow, proliferate, or survive.

Tumor suppressor genes help control cell division or induce cells to die at the appropriate moment.

DNA alterations that turn on oncogenes or turn off tumor suppressor genes can cause cancer. Lung cancer is frequently caused by changes in many distinct genes.


There are 2 main sorts of lung cancer:

NSCLC accounts for about 80% to 85% of lung cancer cases. Adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and giant cell carcinoma are the three primary subtypes of NSCLC.

Because their therapy and prognoses (outlook) are typically similar, these subtypes, which start from distinct types of lung cells, are classed together as NSCLC.

Adenocarcinoma: Adenocarcinomas begin in cells that ordinarily release mucus or other substances. This type of carcinoma is commonest in those that smoke or have smoked within the past, but it’s also the foremost common sort of carcinoma detected in nonsmokers.

It affects more women than males, and it’s more common in younger individuals than other sorts of carcinoma.
Adenocarcinoma is most commonly detected in the lungs’ outer layers, and it is more likely to be discovered before it has spread.

People with adenocarcinoma in situ (formerly called bronchioloalveolar carcinoma), a kind of adenocarcinoma, have a better prognosis than those with other types of lung cancer.

Squamous cell carcinomas begin in squamous cells, which are flat cells that line the liner of the lungs’ airways. They are usually seen within the middle region of the lungs, near a main airway, and are associated to a history of smoking (bronchus)

Large cell carcinoma, also known as undifferentiated carcinoma, can develop in any area of the lungs. It has a tendency to spread and grow quickly, making treatment more difficult. Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, a subtype of huge cell carcinoma, may be a fast-growing malignancy that’s remarkably almost like small cell carcinoma.

Other subtypes: Adenosquamous carcinoma and sarcomatoid carcinoma are two other NSCLC subtypes that are far less common.


SCLC is a type of lung cancer that accounts for 10% to 15% of all lung malignancies and is also known as oat cell cancer.
This kind of lung cancer grows and spreads more quickly than NSCLC. At the time of diagnosis, almost 70% of those with SCLC will have cancer that has already spread.

Chemotherapy and radiation therapy work well for this cancer because it grows quickly. Unfortunately, the cancer will return for the majority of patients at some point.

How to improve your respiratory health during winter

How to improve your respiratory health during winter

Respiratory health during winter: Winter has arrived in many parts of the country. With misty mornings and cool evenings, the chilly weather marks the start of some festivals.

However, for some people, the weather brings with it various fitness problems, including serious respiratory ailments.

In addition to the chilly environment, which triggers fitness issues, disease transmission can also increase in cold weather due to the dreadful airflow in crowded places.

People with pre-existing breathing conditions, including bronchial allergies and chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD), are more likely to see an increase in their conditions because even low temperatures can make it difficult to breathe comfortably.

How to improve your respiratory health during winter
How to improve your respiratory health during winter

Which breathing sicknesses are greater universal all through winters?

Though breathing sickness can manifest at any time all through the yr, a number of them are greater universal all through winter.

Common bloodless: It is the most contagious disease seen throughout the winter and can be caused by over a hundred different types of viruses.

Influenza: Commonly known as the flu, influenza is a viral illness that looks like an unusual spot that is bloodless but more intense. A person with the flu may also groan along with frame pain, congestion, fatigue, and chest pain.

Bronchitis: Bronchitis manifests as inflammation and infection within the airways and lungs. This is often preceded by the aid of using an unusual blood thinner or flu. An uncommon, not uncommon, symptom of bronchitis is a chronic cough.

Pneumonia: Pneumonia is maximum normally visible all through winters and reasons the small air sacs of the lungs (alveoli) to get stuffed up with fluid.

Whooping cough: Whooping cough (additionally referred to as pertussis) is on the whole visible in younger youngsters and is exceedingly contagious in nature. It gives as uncontrollable violent coughing.

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV): RSV is on the whole visible in babies and youngsters and may bring about continual bronchitis and pneumonia. It gives with intense ache withinside the chest and is frequently visible all through top winters.

Sinusitis: Sinusitis is a higher breathing tract contamination that could gift in congestion, headache, and cough. Sinusitis is normally visible in closed areas with terrible airflow.

How the frame typically responds to a virus

As you may be aware, the viruses and microorganisms responsible for abnormal spotting, flu, and other respiratory illnesses, enter the human frame through the nose.

Normally, when those germs enter the nose, they may not be able to leave it because the lining of the nose contains mucus and cilia (the hair-like system within the nose), which allow those germs to get into the respiratory tract.

Prevents These viruses get trapped in the mucus and later reaching the stomach due to the non-stop movement of the cilia. Belly acid neutralizes viruses, therefore preventing disease and contamination.

Does wintry weather resource the unfold of breathing sicknesses?

Let us tell you that, when bloodless air enters the nasal passages, it slows down the build-up of mucus.

When this microorganism passes through the nasal passages, the immune machine is activated and fights off the invader.

However, the test also showed that even bloodless air impairs this immune function, allowing the microorganism to spread infection.

According to the investigation using Harvard, because humans spend more time indoors during the winter season, in which the airflow is terrible, it is easier for the disease to spread to humans living within the same habitat.

They are all breathing the same kind of air as a person who gets the infection. Research has also proven that due to the exceptionally low humidity levels during winter, microorganisms including E. coli, poliovirus, and influenza virus are preserved for longer periods of time.

Researchers have conducted several experiments on guinea pigs to understand the capability of influenza viruses to spread in different temperature and humidity levels.

This turned into mentioning that as the temperature changed to 43 degrees Fahrenheit and the humidity decreased, the virus survived for more than 23 hours.

However, at better humidity levels and temperatures above 90 degrees Fahrenheit, the virus subsided after an hour.

What may be performed to guard the lungs all through winters?

The great and simplest manner for human beings to guard themselves against all sicknesses all through winters is with the aid of using washing their fingers with cleaning soap and water frequently, heading off touching their eyes, nose, or mouth, and staying far from folks who are already ill.

There are a few different precautions that could assist someone copes with wintry weather ailments:

  • During wintry weather, our frame receives worn-out effortlessly as it’s far already running tough to hold the frame temperature normal. Layering the frame with heat garments could assist the frame to modify the temperature lots easier.
  • To save you sinusitis all through winters, one needs to drink masses of the heat of water, hold their environment easy to keep away from dust, and inhale steam to open up the blocked breathing tract and sinuses.
  • People need to get flu shots (vaccine for influenza) each yr to lessen the chance of having the flu.
  • Consumption of multivitamins could assist in boosting immunity all through winters.
  • Vitamin C-wealthy ingredients which include lemon, orange, Indian gooseberry, and guava, could assist in stopping numerous breathing ailments.
  • People with pre-current breathing sicknesses need to carry out respiration sporting events on an everyday foundation to keep their lung function.
  • If the air first-class is horrific around your place, keep away from morning jogs because the poisonous pollution withinside the air is at a top all through that time.
  • Consume warm liquids which include tea, coffee, or soups to assist in keeping the frame temperature.
    Use a humidifier at domestic to save you the drying of the airway.
  • If someone reviews trouble in respiration, has chest ache, weakness, bellyache, dizziness, chronic cough with fever, they need to touch a medical doctor as quickly as possible.



By taking all of the important measures, it is simple to save you the incidence of breathing ailments all through winters.

Consuming a balanced diet, carrying heat garments, getting flu shots, and spending at least an hour below the solar could assist you to hold breathing sicknesses at bay all through wintry weather.

For any queries associated with breathing fitness, talk to a pulmonologist for respiratory health during winter.


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